Model of marketing and information system based on...

A marketing and information system model based on a marketing mix

The construction of MIS of any enterprise should be carried out according to six main methodological principles.

1. The principle of the most complete satisfaction of the needs of consumers by the enterprise, which is determined by the dependence of the manufacturing enterprise on the final consumer in the processes of sales management. This principle should mean the satisfaction of consumers not only by the final product produced and distributed by the enterprise, but also by meeting the information needs of representatives of the target market. It is the quality, volume, availability and other characteristics of marketing (consumer) information that will determine whether the products of the manufacturing enterprise are interested, whether it stands out against analogues or substitutes, whether its brand is remembered, etc. Often in the United States business practice, consumers do not have full or reliable information about the product and its manufacturer. In addition, cases when consumers are misinformed by the enterprise itself are not uncommon. This may lead to the fact that sooner or later enterprises that ignore the principle of fully satisfying the needs of their market with information will simply lose their loyalty and commitment to consumers.

2. The principle of reliability of the marketing information used, according to which the MIS uses only reliable external and internal information, necessary and sufficient for making adequate management decisions. The reliability of marketing information is also important for making sound marketing decisions within the enterprise, both for the target market and for end users.

3. The principle of complexity, in which the IIA should support the activities of the enterprise, taking into account all variables of the marketing complex. The significance of this principle is especially growing in the enterprises operating in the service sector, which use the "7P" model. complex marketing, which includes, in addition to the standard and, as a rule, sufficiently fully provided with information elements (product, price, promotion, sale) additional variable factors of market activity, such as process, personnel, physical environment. While in the practice of marketing activities, little attention is paid to their information support.

4. The principle of systemic nature, according to which the IIA should work together with other enterprise information systems at all stages of the management cycle. The effect of an MIS developed and implemented at the enterprise can only be obtained if it has the ability to integrate with other enterprise information systems. Some CICs have separate modules related to marketing, but their functionality can not replace the capabilities of MIS, just as a single MIS can not replace, for example, automated production planning and management systems. The problem of integrating information systems of different classes, functional accessories and developers with the time of technology development does not lose its effectiveness. Often, several information systems (accounting, warehousing, distribution) operate simultaneously at United States enterprises, which do not have any interrelationship. In this case, the functions for transferring information from one system to another are performed by operators, which increases the number of technical errors and costs when operating such systems. However, in recent years, the KIS of enterprise management (both individual, developed under the order, and branch) began to appear on the market quite high level.

5. The principle of continuous improvement of marketing activities, in accordance with which marketing management is based on the use of modern scientific and methodological developments, software products and information and communication technologies that allow processing and storing large amounts of marketing data. By processing and accumulating volumes of marketing information, accumulating it in its own database, the company gets a unique opportunity to form its own market experience, monitor the performance and effectiveness of marketing decisions in the dynamics, identify causal relationships between market processes, competitors' actions and consumer behavior. Such, filled with primary, unique marketing information of the database, can eventually become a repository of market knowledge - information of the highest economic value, the core of the functioning of IIAs and the most important intangible asset of the enterprise.

6. The principle of the process approach, according to which the marketing activity of an enterprise within the framework of IIAs is represented as a set of interrelated and interacting information processes, including the processes of collecting internal and external marketing information, analyzing it, accumulating, planning on its basis a market and production activities, assessing the effectiveness and effectiveness of its functioning, etc. All the information processes of marketing activities that make up a single process are functioning MIS, in combination, combined by cause-effect relationships, can be modeled and managed.

The functional model of IIAs based on the marketing complex developed by IV Rozhkov is shown in Fig. 2.10. It takes into account the listed principles of the formation of IIAs and includes in its composition the systems of analysis of marketing information, marketing efficiency indicators, planning of marketing activities, internal and external marketing information, database, marketing research systems, and an interactive information circuit consisting of four interrelated elements : a complex of marketing, marketing information, software marketing activities and the target market.

As sources of internal marketing information, enterprises in such a system can act:

• strategy or business plan for enterprise development:

• internal resources of the enterprise: information, financial, technological, labor, etc .;

• economic performance of the enterprise as a whole or detailed by individual departments and products;

• data on the sale of products by product groups, markets or seasons;

• Data on customers, their characteristics, consumer behavior, etc.

Analytical marketing system Enterprise MIS is a set of constantly functioning models and algorithms necessary for the analysis of various types of marketing information and management decisions. The main element of the system that performs analytical functions is the marketer, which functions in the enterprise management system. From its experience and qualification, the adequacy of the obtained estimates of the real situation on the market largely depends. In his analytical work, the manager uses statistical methods and algorithms for information processing, relies on modern computer technology and software. The result of the analysis of marketing information is the recommendations formulated by the marketer, which are the basis for making managerial decisions, both in marketing activities and activities of other business units.

The system of marketing performance indicators MIS enterprises, which include consumer estimates, consumer loyalty, quality of services are determined based on collected and analyzed external and internal marketing information. The proposed IIA makes it possible to calculate the values ​​of the main marketing categories not for the final result of the enterprise's activity (sold products), but also at the stage of information impact of the enterprise on the consumer. This approach allows marketers to better understand the needs and preferences of potential consumers, and therefore, to take a complex of organizational and communication activities for their better satisfaction. In addition, the definition of the main indicators of marketing efficiency for the communication activities of the enterprise makes it possible to determine the market efficiency of the planned information processes and, if necessary, to promptly adjust the work of the IIAs.

Fig. 2.10. The structure of the enterprise MIS based on the variables of the marketing complex (author IV Rozhkov)

Marketing planning system Enterprise MIS is a set of constantly functioning techniques and resources used to determine the goals, strategies, and tactical activities in the field of marketing, developed for a certain period of time. In general, strategic marketing planning is distinguished (development of a long-term development strategy for an enterprise for a period of three to five years); tactical marketing planning (development of an annual program of marketing activities); operational planning of marketing (monthly planning of specific marketing processes). In the structure of enterprise MIS, the planning system is designed to solve tasks of tactical and operational planning. It functions based on the received and analyzed external information describing the market position of the enterprise and the forecasted variants of its development, and information on the company's internal resources necessary for the implementation of marketing processes.

Internal marketing information system Enterprise MIS is a set of constantly functioning techniques and resources that allow you to receive current information about events occurring within the enterprise. The system collects and stores data on customers, sales, services, costs and current cash inflows, marketing plans and reports. The main purpose of the internal information system is to track the internal processes occurring at the enterprise, to meet the needs of consumers and serve customers' orders, and to ensure the corresponding marketing business processes.

Database Enterprise MIS is a set of marketing information organized in accordance with certain rules and maintained in the computer's memory, characterizing the state of the internal and external marketing environment of the enterprise and used to meet the information needs of the company's internal divisions and its external consumers. The IIA database can be the basis for the work of CRM-systems, in-house marketing, current, tactical and operational planning of the company's market activity.

The system of external marketing information MIS enterprises are a set of constantly functioning techniques and resources that allow receiving current information about events occurring in the external market environment of the enterprise. The purpose of this system is to track information about the dynamics of the main market indicators, competitors, the state of the market, etc. This information is necessary for making decisions on tactical and strategic planning and control. The composition and content of external information are determined by each enterprise based on their market interests for a sufficiently long period. As a rule, the marketing activity of the enterprise includes monitoring the actions of competitors, intermediaries and other subjects of marketing activities, collecting information about target markets and events in the external environment that create threats to the activities of the enterprise or opportunities that need to be reacted in a timely manner. Marketing information about the external environment is characterized by a significant volume and the prevalence of qualitative information, their weak structuredness, high degree of uncertainty, the diversity of suppliers and sources of information.

A marketing research system A company's MIS is a collection of periodically used techniques and resources that provide additional information necessary for making the most responsible managerial decisions. This system contains the results of research carried out by employees of the enterprise itself or by third-party organizations of the appropriate profile. This information is primarily necessary to establish the intentions of consumers, their relationship to the services provided, brands, advertising and prices. Recently, the concept of marketing research has significantly expanded and is associated with the search and provision of information for marketing solutions of different levels. At the same time, the IIA is considered as a tool for providing, storing and selecting information for the development of management decisions in accordance with the step-by-step procedures specific to the research process as such. The proposed IIA includes a system of marketing research as a backup. This means that this system is included in the work only if available sources of internal and external marketing information are not able to provide the necessary data or there are doubts about their reliability.

One of the features of the proposed functional model of enterprise MIS is the presence in it of an interactive information circuit , consisting of four interrelated elements: a complex of marketing, marketing information, software tools for interaction with customers and the target market itself see Figure 2.10). In the interactive circuit, marketing information is exchanged between the variables of the marketing mix and target consumers through the use of modern information and communication technologies. At the same time, organizational components are represented in the form of the implementation of planned marketing and organizational events, and information - in the form of information on all areas of the enterprise (for example, posted on the website of the enterprise). The list of elements of the IIA allows it to be positioned in the center of the management system of a modern enterprise and to determine the main information processes occurring in it. They can be represented as a logical sequence:

1) receiving and processing internal information;

2) receiving and processing external information;

3) conducting marketing research;

4) analysis of marketing information;

5) evaluation of the effectiveness of marketing activities;

6) planning marketing activities;

7) information support of the variables of the marketing complex;

8) information interaction with target consumers on the basis of modern software tools.

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