Modeling of processes of information support of marketing activity...

Modeling of processes of information support of marketing activity on the basis of marketing information systems

Marketing management, including its information processes, should be considered as a process. The initial use of the process approach at the beginning of the last century is associated with the name of A. Fayol, the founder of the school of administrative management. However, this approach began to be applied relatively recently, when the functional approach that had dominated before that time completely exhausted itself. When using the process approach, the manager's field of vision is no longer the individual functions of the organizational units and activities, but all of their aggregate, united by cause-effect relationships into a single multi-level process.

Process is understood as a set of interrelated and interdependent activities that transform inputs and outputs. Any kind of activity of the organization can be realized only if there are adequate resources. Therefore, inputs and process outputs, and certain activities are material (for example, raw materials) and information resources. The type of activity that is not subject to further breakdown is the operation, or the elementary component of the process. All activities included in the process, except for operations, can be presented as processes of a lower level if necessary. To implement the process approach to marketing management, you need:

• Identify marketing management processes;

• establish the sequence and interaction of these processes;

• Define the criteria and methods necessary to ensure the effectiveness of both the implementation of these processes and their management;

• Ensure the availability of the resources and information necessary to support these processes and their monitoring;

• monitor, measure and analyze these processes;

• Take the measures necessary to achieve the planned results and continuously improve them.

The most complete identification of the interrelationships of the company's marketing business processes is possible with the help of a functional model. Functional modeling in modern business practice is increasingly used for organizational and economic systems and processes in order to improve them, improve their effectiveness and effectiveness. Particularly relevant construction of functional models becomes for business processes of information support of marketing activities on the basis of IIAs.

Functional Modeling of IDEF0 consists in the representation of any system under study in the form of a set of interacting and interrelated blocks that map processes, operations, and actions that take place in the system. The main advantage of the functional model is visualization and graphical simplicity. The functional model of MIS allows to analyze its functioning in more detail, to determine the place in the overall structure of the business processes of the enterprise. The functional model of MIS, built on the basis of the IDEF0 methodology and reflecting the interconnection of all information processes occurring in it, is shown in Fig. 2.11.

Fig. 2.11. Functional model of IIAs based on IDEF0 methodology:

MI - marketing information; KM - a complex of marketing; IS - information system

Obtaining and processing internal information (see Figure 2.11, block A 1.1) is done sporadically. The need to carry out this process is determined by the changes that have taken place at the enterprise, in particular, the range of products, its quality, production capacity, used production technologies, personnel qualifications, etc. As a rule, it comes to IIAs from various divisions, a common database or CIS. Collected and processed internal marketing information is further analyzed (see Figure 2.11, block A1.4). In addition, data on the number and availability of internal resources necessary for marketing activities are used in the marketing planning process (see Figure 2.11, block A1.5).

Price and production information is designed to inform the variable marketing complex, for example, by developing appropriate sections of the site of the enterprise or using other information technologies for interaction with customers (see Figure 2.11, block A1.6). Data on consumer properties of products are needed to determine the values ​​of the main marketing categories and performance indicators, in particular, the indicator of consumer satisfaction (see Figure 2.11, block A1.7).

Obtaining and processing external information (see Figure 2.11, block A1.2) is produced periodically. The need to carry out this process is determined by changes in the external market environment: the emergence of new types of products and competitive enterprises, changes in market prices due to inflation, etc. In addition, collected and processed external secondary marketing information is subsequently subjected to analysis (see Fig. 2.11, block A1.4), it can also be useful for benchmarking and taking into account the experience of competing enterprises when developing an enterprise communication strategy or using other means of mutual Operations with customers (see Figure 2.11, block A1.6).

Carrying out market research (see Figure 2.11, block A1.3) is carried out in cases when the marketing information obtained from other sources is insufficient for comprehensive analysis (see Figure 2.11, block A 1.4) and the adoption of adequate management decisions. Therefore, by many enterprises this process, because of its high complexity and cost, can be considered as a backup.

Analysis of marketing information (see Figure 2.11, block A1.4) is made regularly to develop management solutions to optimize the production and marketing activities of the enterprise. In the course of the analysis, mathematical and statistical models and algorithms for analyzing information are used. At the same time, the completeness, reliability and relevance of the previously obtained marketing information is evaluated. The result of the analysis of marketing information is the quantitative and qualitative characteristics of the enterprise, on the basis of which the management of the enterprise takes management decisions aimed at optimizing and increasing the efficiency of market activities.

Planning for marketing events (see Figure 2.11, block A1.5) is executed for processes that are carried out regularly (tactical and operational marketing planning) or involve a large number of stages of long time. Such processes include: the process of information support of the marketing complex (see Figure 2.11, block A1.5); the process of conducting market research (see Figure 2.11, block A1.3); process of obtaining and processing external information (see Figure 2.11, block A1.2). The result of planning for these processes is the developed detailed program of actions (plan). Information on the marketing plans should be communicated to all structural divisions of the enterprise that have the necessary resources in order to coordinate all the activities of the enterprise and integrate IIAs into the overall management structure. At the planning stage of marketing events, it is important to take into account the overall strategic objectives of the enterprise development, specified in its strategy.

Informational support for the variables of the marketing complex (see Figure 2.11, block A1.6) is based on internal information distributed across the variables of the marketing complex, targeted at the impact on consumers. The prepared marketing information is communicated to consumers through an Internet site or other means of interaction with customers. As a methodical basis of MIS, as a rule, four to seven variables of the marketing complex are used: product, distribution channels, communication elements, price, people, material proof and process. After marketing information is communicated to consumers, measures aimed at increasing the effectiveness of its impact on the target market. Targeted consumers, using queries in search engines or electronic catalogs in accordance with their needs, turn to various sources of information about the activities of the enterprise or its products, where they search for information of interest.

Defining the values ​​of the main marketing categories (see Figure 2.11, block A 1.7) is the final stage of the enterprise MIS operation. Planned and implemented marketing activities aimed at informational support of the variables of the marketing complex, receive a consumer assessment. The basis of this stage is the determination of the value of the main performance indicators. They are an important part of the internal marketing information, which determines the orientation in the activity of the whole enterprise. Comparing the obtained actual values ​​with the planned ones, we can conclude about the effectiveness and effectiveness of the marketing activities of the enterprise, and consequently, the IIAs in general. According to the received results on consumer satisfaction, coming in the form of external information, marketers are given the opportunity to adjust the plan of marketing activities. The obtained results induce the process of functioning of IIAs to a new iteration aimed at optimizing marketing activities, increasing consumer satisfaction, improving product quality, etc. The decomposition of the seven processes described above into the functional model of enterprise MIS is shown in Table. 2.5.

Table 2.5

Decomposition of the processes of formation of IIAs

Code

Process

A1

Functioning of the company's marketing information system

D1.1

Getting and processing internal information

A1.1.1

Obtaining internal information from production units, supply departments and working with clients, as well as the contact personnel of the enterprise in the variables of the marketing complex "Product", "Material proof", "Process"

A1.1.2

Obtaining internal information from the financial, marketing and advertising departments of the enterprise for the variables of the marketing complex "Price", "Promotion"

A1.1.3

Obtaining internal information from the marketing departments of the enterprise through the variable marketing complex "Distribution"

A1.1.4

Obtaining internal information from the human resources departments and from the contact personnel of the enterprise in the variable marketing complex "Personnel"

A1.1.5

Differentiating the internal information obtained for the significant for consumers and used for intra-organizational purposes

A1.1.6

Storage of collected and processed internal marketing information in the database

Code

Process

A1.2

Obtaining and processing external information

A1.2.1

Choosing sources and providers of external information

A1.2.2

Monitoring of general trends of business activity, political and legal sphere, social, demographic and economic characteristics of the target market

A1.2.3

Definition of competing enterprises and their study for benchmarking purposes

A1.2.4

Getting information from suppliers and partners

A1.2.5

Obtaining information from expert sources (marketing, legal, technological)

A1.2.6

Definition of consumer estimates

A1.2.7

Collection of Internet statistics of visits to the information site or consumer feedback using other information technologies for interaction with customers

A1.2.8

Storage of collected and processed external marketing information in the enterprise database

A1.3

Carrying out market research

A1.3.1

Identifying marketing problems and research objectives

A 1.3.2

Determination of the method, methods of research, type and sources of required information

A 1.3.3

Preparation of the project, estimates and terms of the study

A1.3.4

Data collection and processing

A1.3.5

Primary analysis of collected data

A 1.3.6

Presentation of research results

A 1.3.7

Determining whether research results are consistent with the goals

L1.4

Marketing information analysis

A1.4.1

Analysis of internal marketing information about the strengths and weaknesses of the company's market activities

A1.4.2

Analysis of external marketing information about opportunities and threats in the market activity of the enterprise

A1.4.3

Using the methods of statistical and mathematical analysis, analytical models to increase the objectivity of the results obtained

A1.4.4

Analysis of customer satisfaction with information support of marketing complex variables

A1.4.5

Comparison of the results of the analysis with external and internal marketing information obtained by other methods

A1.4.6

Formulation of the conclusions necessary for making managerial decisions in the activities of the enterprise and planning marketing activities

A1.5

Planning marketing activities for the variables of the marketing complex

A1.5.1

Defining the composition of tasks (operations of the marketing activity process)

A1.5.2

Determining the duration of tasks, determining the time of their beginning and completion

A1.5.3

Establishing the relationship between tasks and the sequence of their execution

A 1.5.4

Determination of the composition, quantity and cost of the necessary resources

A 1.5.5

Determining the availability of resources

A1.5.6

Assign resources to perform the relevant process tasks

A 1.5.7

Determining the type of presentation of plan information

A1.5.8

Adjustment and refinement of planned indicators of the marketing activity process with actual results

A1.6

Information support for the variables of the marketing mix using an information site or other means of interaction with customers

A1.6.1

Selection of software developers

A 1.6.2

Preparation of marketing information on the variables of the marketing complex

A 1.6.3

Preparation of a technical assignment for the development of an information site/software product

A 1.6.4

Development of the structure and design of the information site or software product

A 1.6.5

Programming of the site and the pages of the information site or the interface of the software product

A1.6.6

Placement of prepared materials in restricted mode

A 1.6.7

Reconciliation and correction of prepared materials

Code

Process

A1.6.8

Final readiness check

A1.6.9

Placement of an information site on the Internet/software product in a public mode

A1.7

Defining the values ​​of the main marketing categories

A1.7.1

Identifying the characteristics of an information site that is relevant to consumers

A 1.7.2

Identify groups of indicators of Internet statistics that characterize user satisfaction with the information content of the site

A1.7.3

Determining the weight of the characteristics of the information site by the method of expert assessments

A 1.7.4

Determination of the values ​​of the characteristics of the information site relevant to consumers

A1.7.5

Calculation of the index of user satisfaction as a whole for an information site

A1.7.6

Comparison of the results of calculating the satisfaction index for an information site with the results of similar calculations performed by other methods

A1.7.7

Formulation of organizational conclusions the adoption of managerial decisions in marketing

The considered structure and functional model of IIAs on the basis of variables of a marketing complex allows to carry out the basic marketing functions in market activity of the enterprise, including:

the function of implementing marketing activities. The marketing information system is aimed at implementing all elements of the market activity of the enterprise, implementing a full cycle of marketing management;

The information function. One of the main functions of MIS is the dissemination of marketing information about enterprise products to target consumers,

analytical function. The marketing information system provides an opportunity not only to investigate customer preferences, but also through feedback to assess the effectiveness of market activity in all variables of the marketing mix;

control function. The proposed functional model of MIS, using the basic categories of marketing (consumer estimates and product quality), provides an opportunity for continuous monitoring of customer satisfaction, as well as providing a corrective effect on consumer properties of products and the process of marketing management.

The proposed MIS model reflects the specifics and content of marketing activities of modern enterprises, is of a complex nature and functions in cooperation with other information systems. Unlike existing models, the proposed MIS model is based on the variables of the marketing complex, the content of which is determined by consumers through the feedback channel, implemented with the help of information and communication technologies.

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