Network technologies for marketing tasks
In the infrastructure of e-business in general and electronic marketing in particular, telecommunications systems and computer networks are given a key role. This is due to the fact that in modern economic information systems, management is carried out through information flows. Information flows from the external environment include various kinds of normative information, information on the market situation created by competitors, consumers, suppliers. Information on financial activities (to government agencies, creditors, investors), marketing information (to consumers, partners, suppliers) etc. is received from the business entities to the external environment. A large amount of information is accumulated, processed and circulated within enterprises and serves as a basis for forecasting the development of the economic system, adjusting the goals in economic activity. Transmission and processing of these information flows is carried out by telecommunication networks, which makes them the most significant component of information systems. They provide users with a wide range of information and computing services, providing access to local and remote information resources, technologies and databases.
Consideration of the conceptual foundations of telecommunications computing systems is advisable to perform, evaluating the hardware, information and software.
Basic concepts and definitions
Telecommunication computer network is a network of exchange and distributed information processing, formed by a set of interconnected subscriber systems and communication facilities that are providers or consumers of information. Means of communication and information processing are focused on the collective use of network-wide resources - hardware, information, and software (Figure 3.6).
Fig. 3.6. Telecommunications network
The main components of the network hardware are computers of various types and classes or other network terminals, communication nodes and communication facilities. Computers that are part of a telecommunications network may have different performance, configuration, and functions that can be divided into workstations and network servers.
Modem - a device for modulating/demodulating signals transmitted over communication channels.
Repeater is the simplest device for physically connecting cable segments in order to increase the network length. At the same time, the problem of amplifying and retransmitting the transmitted signal is solved, as well as the connection between cable segments of various types, for example, between coaxial and fiber-optic cables.
Switches (switch), or bridges (bridge), like repeaters, allow data to be transferred from one network (or part of the network) to another, if the transfer of information is really necessary, i.e. The destination computer address does belong to another network. The localization of traffic using bridges not only improves the performance of data transfer, but also reduces the possibility of unauthorized access to data, preventing the output of information destined for the addressees of this network beyond its limits.
Route and Congestion are designed to implement the following basic functions:
• Connections of networks built using various network technologies;
• choosing the best route for sending the message;
• load balancing in the network through the uniform distribution of data;
• Data protection.
Gateways are devices designed to transfer information between two heterogeneous (heterogeneous) environments.
Hub - A device for creating an arbitrary topology network.
Workstation - is a computer connected to a network and running a local operating system. The user of such computer has access both to own files and applications, and to network resources.
The network server performs the functions of managing the distribution of network resources and the provision of various types of services.
To communication nodes are the following devices: modems, repeaters, switches (bridges), routers, gateways, etc.
Various physical media can be used as communication media : coaxial cable, twisted pair, fiber optic cable, telephone line. At present, wireless technologies using radio waves or infrared radiation are widely used.The software of telecommunication systems is extremely diverse (Figure 3.7) and serves to solve problems of information processing, planning and organization of collective access to information resources of the network, the dynamic distribution of these resources,
Information support is a single information fund, focused on the tasks solved in the network. Examples are databases - local and distributed, general and individual purposes.
The variety of hardware and software solutions used in computers and communication channels between them requires coordinating the development of telecommunications networks, which is performed on the basis of a reference model (open system interconnection - OSI). This model, called the open system interaction model, is the standard of the International Organization for Standardization (ISO).
Fig. 3.7. Network Software
The basic concept of the basic reference model is the concept of a system as an autonomous set of computational tools that process data of applied processes, and the task of the network is to ensure the interaction of application processes located in different systems. The application process provides information processing and is an essential component of the system. The area of interaction of open systems is determined by series-parallel groups of functions or interaction modules implemented by software and hardware.
Modules that form the area of interaction between applied processes and physical means, in general, have seven levels: applied, representative, session, transport, network, channel and physical. Each level of the model is relatively independent and describes the strictly defined functions of the interaction of network devices.
Multilevel representation of the means of network interaction assumes the coordinated work of two participants of network exchange on each of the seven levels. Formalized rules that determine the sequence and format of messages exchanged between network components that are on the same level but at different nodes of the network are called protocol.
Modules that implement protocols of neighboring levels of a single node also interact according to clearly defined rules. These rules are commonly referred to as the interface.
The basic requirements that are imposed on modern telecommunications networks are performance, scalability, reliability, security and manageability.
The performance of networks is characterized by indicators such as reaction time, throughput and transmission delay. The network reaction time is well known to any user, when at work he says: "Today the network is slow". The response of the network is influenced both by its technical characteristics and the congestion of the network. The bandwidth is determined by the amount of information transmitted through the network or its segment per unit of time. The transmission delay is calculated as the time between the arrival of information on the input of the device and the moment of its appearance at the output. This indicator is essential in the transmission of voice data or images.
Extensibility of the network means the ability to easily add individual network elements (users, computers, applications, services). However, in some cases, these operations can lead to a decrease in network performance, and then it is customary to talk about such a property of the network as scalability - the possibility of network scalability without loss of performance.
Reliability of hardware is provided by traditional methods, for example, by duplicating individual elements, and information security and anti-distortion protection by creating copies and verifying identity copies when changing information.
A special value in computer networks is the security of information transfer which is provided by special software and hardware.
When a computer network is in operation, resources are needed not only to monitor the operation of the network, to collect various information about the functioning of the network, but also to control the network. In general, the network management system should provide the ability to affect the operation of any network element. It should be possible to carry out management activities from any element of the network. Network management is handled by the network administrator or the user who is assigned these functions. Usual user, as a rule, does not have administrative rights. Allocate functions:
• unmanaged (natural conditions, impact of sources of interference, intensity of user requests flows, etc.)
• Managed (organization of functioning, realizable ways of access to the transmission medium and management of data exchange, etc.).
The other characteristics of manageability are the ability to identify problems in the work of the computer network or its individual segments, the development of management actions to solve identified problems and the ability to automate these processes in solving similar problems in the future.< center>
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