of peripherals, interface - Informatics

Peripheral Unit

Peripherals, or external devices are devices that do not have system resources, such as memory and I/O address spaces, interrupt request channels and direct memory access, i.e. means used by devices for data exchange. Devices that have system resources are called system devices. The processor has the ability to directly access the system devices and does not have one when referring to peripheral devices. Therefore, peripheral devices are connected to the interfaces of system devices. For example:

connected to the controller is an peripheral device, since it does not occupy separate resources and the processor accesses it through controller resources ;

• The controller is an system device, since it has system resources in the form of ports and interrupt lines that have their own addresses.

Peripheral devices are located in the system unit (disk drives) and outside of it (monitor, scanner and many others).

Interface Block

This block contains the means ensuring interaction between the processor, main memory and peripheral devices (see Figure 1.8). The interface also includes the system bus (trunk), which contains a large number of lines (conductors), which, according to their functional purpose, are divided into three individual buses:

address bus, intended for transferring the address. The address is generated by the microprocessor to select the required main memory (RAM, ROM) or system device (for example, the I/O port) to which the desired peripheral device is connected. For IBM-compatible computers, the volume of the addressable cell is equal to one byte. Therefore, the address bus width determines the maximum amount of external memory addressed by the processor. For example, a 32-bit address bus provides memory addressing of up to 232 bytes = 4 GB and a 36-bit spike to 236 bytes = 64 GB;

data bus, which serves to select commands coming from RAM or ROM to the microprocessor control device, and to transfer operands between the microprocessor and RAM or an external device. In the first generations of computers, the number of lines (8, 16 or 32) of the data bus corresponded to the number of operands processed by the microprocessor. In today's 32-bit computers, a 64-bit data bus is used to allow two instructions or operands to be sent simultaneously to the processor;

control bus, over which various control signals are transmitted. They set the memory operation modes (recording or reading), interface devices (input or output of information) and a microprocessor (startup, requests of external devices for maintenance, information on the current mode of operation, etc.). The width of the control bus is determined by the organization of the system, the possibilities of implementing various modes of its operation, the methods used to control the microprocessor and a number of other devices. Therefore, the set of control signals transmitted via this bus is individual for each model of the microprocessor. There are a number of control signals that are used in most microprocessor systems. These include initial start signals (RESET); signals that specify the operating mode of the memory (read-RD, write-WR); signals needed to implement interrupts, and some others.

The interface tools , or the interface between devices and computer components, can be divided into several groups:

The , bus interface containing the expansion bus, or I/O bus, and the above system bus. Expansion buses provide the basis for the functional extensibility of a PC-compatible computer, targeting it in addition to computing a wide range of different tasks (the formation and processing of video images, graphics, text documents and many others) using peripheral devices. They are designed to connect various adapters and controllers of peripheral devices to the motherboard. Adapters and Controllers serve to interface peripherals with a particular bus (in fact, with the central devices - the processor and main memory). The controller, unlike the adapter after receiving the command from the serving program, is capable of independent actions. Adapters and controllers have system resources, so they can access the peripheral devices through them;

system logic, is a set of chips installed on the motherboard for the exchange of data between the CPU and peripherals. This chipset is called a chipset (Chipset). The chipset includes a processor bus interface, memory controllers, I/O buses, etc. Modern chipsets carry out a large number of various functions;

• Constructive interface tools, which include a number of elements: expansion cards, slots, sockets, switches, cables, connectors, etc.

There is a wide class of communication devices intended for transferring information between computers. In particular, these devices provide the connection of computers in the local network.

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