# Other types of computer graphics, Pixel graphics, Fractal graphics...

## Other types of computer graphics

As mentioned above, computer graphics can be divided into three main categories according to the methods of image description: raster, vector and three-dimensional graphics. Among the two-dimensional graphics, pixel and fractal graphics are distinguished in a special way. Three-dimensional, CGI, and infographic are also required to be considered separately.

## Pixel graphics

The term pixel graphics (from English pixel ) means the form of a digital image created on the computer using a bitmap graphics editor, where the image is edited at pixel level, and the image resolution is so small, that individual pixels are clearly visible.

It is a common misconception that any drawing made using raster editors is pixel graphics. This is incorrect, pixel image differs from the usual raster technology - manually editing the pixel by pixel image. Therefore, the pixel pattern is small in size, limited by the color palette and (as a rule) by the absence of smoothing.

Pixel graphics use only the simplest tools of raster graphic editors, such as Pencil, Line (Direct) or Fill (fill with color). Pixel art resembles a mosaic and embroidery with a cross or bead - as the drawing consists of small colored elements, similar to the pixels of modern monitors.

## Fractal graphics

A fractal is an object formed from irregular individual parts that are similar to an entire object. Since a more detailed description of elements of a smaller scale is based on a simple algorithm, it is possible to describe such an object by only a few mathematical equations.

Fig. 8.5. Fractal Forest

Fractal graphics are indispensable when creating artificial mountains, clouds, sea waves. Thanks to fractals, complex objects are easily depicted, the images of which are similar to natural ones. Fractals allow you to describe entire classes of images, for a detailed description of which you need relatively little memory (Figure 8.5). On the other hand, fractals are poorly applicable to images outside these classes.

## Three-dimensional graphics

Three-dimensional graphics (3D - from English 3 Dimensions - three dimensions) - three dimensions of the image) - a section of computer graphics, a set of receptions and tools (both software and hardware), intended for the image of three-dimensional objects (Figure 8.6).

Fig. 8.6. Three-dimensional models

The three-dimensional image on the plane differs from the two-dimensional one in that it involves building a geometric projection of the 3D model of the scene onto a plane (for example, a computer screen) using specialized programs (however, and the introduction of 3D -displays and 3D -printer three-dimensional graphics does not necessarily involve projecting onto a plane). In this case, the model can either correspond to objects from the real world (cars, buildings, hurricane, asteroid), and be completely abstract (the projection of a four-dimensional fractal).

3D modeling is the process of creating a three-dimensional model of an object. The task 3D -modeling - to develop a volumetric image of the desired object. With the help of three-dimensional graphics, you can create an exact copy of a specific object, and develop a new, even unrealistic representation of an object that never existed.

Three-dimensional graphics operate with objects in three-dimensional space. Usually the results are a flat image, a projection. Three-dimensional computer graphics are widely used on television, in cinematography, in computer games and design of printing products.

Three-dimensional graphics are actively used to create images on the screen plane or printed sheet in science and industry (for example, in CAD systems); for the creation of solid-state elements: buildings, machine parts, mechanisms), architectural visualization (this includes so-called "virtual archeology"), in modern medical imaging systems.

Three-dimensional graphics usually deal with a virtual, imaginary three-dimensional space that is displayed on a flat, two-dimensional surface of a display or a sheet of paper. Any image on the monitor due to the plane of the latter becomes raster, because the monitor is a matrix, it consists of columns and rows. Three-dimensional graphics exist only in our imagination - what we see on the monitor is the projection of the three-dimensional figure, and we are creating the space ourselves. Thus, the visualization of the graphics is only raster and vector, and the way of visualization is just a raster (a set of pixels), the amount of these pixels depends on the way the image is specified.

At present, there are several ways to display three-dimensional information in bulk, although most of them represent volumetric characteristics rather arbitrarily, since they work with a stereo image. From this area, you can see stereo glasses, virtual helmets, 3D -displays that can display a three-dimensional image.

## -Graphics

The term CGI graphics (English computergenerated imagery represent images generated by a computer) denote motionless and moving images generated using three-dimensional computer graphics and used in visual arts, printing, cinematographic special effects, on television and in simulators. In computer games, computer graphics are usually used in real time, but in-game video based on CGI are periodically added.

Computer animation is the creation of moving images, which is a narrower area of ​​CGI graphics, applicable also in cinematography, where it allows creating effects that can not be achieved with traditional make-up and animatronics. Computer animation can replace the work of stunt men and extras, as well as scenery.

## Infographics

The term infographics (from Latin informatio - information, explanation, presentation, etc .. -Greek graphike - written, from grapho - write) indicate a graphical way of submitting information, data and knowledge.

The range of infographic applications is huge - geography, journalism, education, statistics, technical texts. It helps not only to organize large amounts of information, but also to more clearly show the ratio of objects and facts in time and space, and also to show trends.

Infographics can be called any combination of text and graphics, created with the intention of presenting a particular story, to convey this or that fact. Infographics works where it is necessary to show the device and the algorithm of something, the correlation of objects and facts in time and space, to show the tendency, to show how it looks, to organize large volumes of information.

Infographics is a visual representation of information. Used wherever complex information needs to be presented quickly and clearly.

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