PACKAGES OF APPLIED SYSTEM MODELING PROGRAMS
The method of machine modeling is increasingly entering the practice of solving specific problems of research and design of systems, finds its application for a wide range of problems in various fields (automated control systems, automation systems for scientific research and experiments, information and computing systems and shared networks, computer-aided design systems, etc.). To solve these problems, an increasing number of specialists of different qualifications are often involved, often far from using computer aids. Therefore, for such users, special means of preparation and communication with the computer must be developed, allowing to automate this laborious process [17, 37].
Thus, the question arises about the creation of the automated modeling system (ACM), which should improve the efficiency of the user's execution of the following set of procedures: transformation to typical mathematical schemes of the elements of the simulated system 5 and construction of conjugation schemes; processing and analysis of the results of modeling the system 5; the implementation of an interactive mode with the user in the process of modeling the system 5.
The concept of an application package.
Creating problem-oriented complexes, including ACMs, called application packages, is an important area of work in modern computational mathematics. When creating modeling software packages (MAP), in addition to developing and selecting modeling algorithms and programs, a significant place is occupied by work on the corresponding system software. The speed and convenience of solving simulation problems for specific classes of systems 5 when using MRPs are achieved by combining in a single functional content architecture consisting of modules and covering the subject domain of modeling, and specialized system support tools that make it relatively easy to implement various tasks and provide the user with a variety of services in preparing tasks simulation and carrying out of computer experiments with the model L/ m .
It is characteristic that during the development and machine experiment the object model undergoes numerous changes that inevitably entail changes in the corresponding work programs. At present, APM is practically the only acceptable form of organization of modeling programs that allows you to "stay afloat" in the vast sea of versions and variants of the original conceptual model. In addition,
The batch organization of computer experiment programs with the M m model makes it possible to systematize the implementation of research using the theory of experiment planning and thereby increasing the reliability of the results of modeling a particular system
One of the important problems in the use of computer technology for modeling systems is the problem of human communication with a computer in the development of the model and its operation. To increase the effectiveness of such communication, appropriate algorithms and software are required. Here you can distinguish three areas of work: 1) the creation of software that provides the user with various tools for automating the development of programs; 2) creation of software tools that simplify the operation of computer networks by engineering and dispatching personnel, as well as ensuring the effective use of all computing resources; 3) the creation of software that provides users with a variety of services in solving application problems. These three directions are reduced respectively to an increase in the level of the instrumental, executive and thematic skills of the computer.
Thus, application packages are one of the main forms of specialized software. PPM is a set of interrelated modeling programs and system support tools (software and language) designed to automate the solution of modeling problems. The whole range of works related to the development of algorithms and simulation programs, as well as the preparation and conduct of computer experiments, is called simulation automation and is implemented in the form of specific ACMs.
There are three main components in the MRP structure: functional content, language of tasks and system content.
Functional content of the package. The functional content of the MRP reflects the specificity of the subject area with reference to a specific modeling object, i.e., the system H, and represents a set of modules. A module here is understood to be a constructive element used at various stages of a packet's operation. The language (s) on which the functional content modules are written will be called the base language of the MRP. The composition of the functional content of the package, its capacity or the completeness of its scope cover the amount of applied knowledge embedded in the MRP, that is, the potential level of the thematic qualification of the package.
One of the key problems in developing an MRP is modularization , that is, a breakdown of the functional content of a package into modules. Carefully performed analysis of the modeling object and, based on its modularization, allow to reduce the amount of work on the implementation of the MRP, increase its reliability and facilitate the further evolution of the package.
The number of different forms of modules used in packages is very large. First of all, it is necessary to allocate program modules, data modules and documentation modules. For program modules, for example, forms such as a subroutine are known; the construction of an algorithmic language allowing autonomous translation; macros; A file containing such a text fragment of the program, which is treated as an independent object for study or editing; a set of instructions that specify how to build a specific version of the program; implementation of an abstract data type, etc.
We will clarify what is meant by the constructivity of the module. First of all, we mean the algorithmic constructivity, since the module is an element of the algorithmic basis obtained as a result of modular analysis of the subject area, which serves as the basis for constructing simulation programs. In addition, the structures of typical computational algorithms, the relationships between the elements of the algorithmic basis used in these structures, information flows affect the algorithmic constructiveness of modules.
In addition to algorithmic, it is necessary to distinguish the technological design of the modules, determined by the discipline of work in a specific machine model M m and the system environment on which the MRP is designed and operated. Technological design is affected by such factors:
- forms of representation of program modules M and
- types of control links between individual parts of software systems (open and closed subroutines);
- methods of development (top-down, bottom-up, etc.) of software complexes used when working with the modeling algorithm of system 5;
- the base language or programming languages used in the preparation of modeling programs;
- restrictions on the size of modeling programs;
- the possibility of full-time system tools that allow editing links, downloading and segmenting software packages, editing texts.
Requirements arising from algorithmic and technological constructiveness constitute, in the aggregate, the modularization schedule, ie, the form of the material presentation in the functional content adopted by package developers, as well as the ways of its creation and evolution. If the description of the task language is considered as the specification of the user interface with the package, then the modularization rules determine the interface with the package (more precisely, with the functional content of the package) of its developers.
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