Patterns of goal-forming, Patterns of origin and formulation...

Laws of goal formation

Regularities of the emergence and formulation of goals

The generalization of the results of studies of the goal-formation processes conducted by philosophers, psychologists, cybernetics, and observation of the processes of justifying and structuring goals in specific conditions allowed us to formulate some general principles, patterns that are useful in practice.

Dependence of the idea of ​​the goal and its formulation on the stage of cognition of the object (process) and time . An analysis of the definitions of the concept of purpose allows us to conclude that, in formulating the goal, it is necessary to strive to reflect in its formulation or in the way of presentation the main contradiction, that, on the one hand, the goal should play an active role in cognition, in management, and on the other - be realistic, which will allow it to direct activities to obtain a certain useful result. In this case, the formulation of the goal and the idea of ​​the goal depends on the stage of cognition of the object, and as the concept of the object develops, the formulation of the goal can and should be clarified.

In formulating and revising the goal, the team that carries out this work must determine in what sense at this stage of the object's consideration and the development of ideas about it the concept "target" is used, to which point of the conditional scale the ideal aspirations for the future are real the end result of the (see Figure 1.4) is closer to the target wording. In process of deepening of researches and knowledge of object the purpose can be shifted in one or other side of a scale and accordingly its formulation should change.

Dependence of the goal on external and internal factors. When analyzing the reasons for the emergence and formulation of goals, it should be borne in mind that external factors (external demands, needs, motives, programs) influence the target. and internal (needs, motives, programs of the system itself and its elements, the performers of the goal). At the same time, the latter are just as objective factors influencing the process of goal-forming as external factors (especially when using the concept of a goal in management systems as a means of motivating to action).

Goals can arise on the basis of the interaction of contradictions or coalitions both between external and internal factors, and between internal factors existing and emerging in self-sustained integrity.

This pattern characterizes a very important difference between open, developing systems with active elements from technical systems, usually displayed by closed models. The theory of management of the latter usually operates with the concept of purpose as external to the system, and in open, developing systems, goals are not specified from the outside, but are formed within the system on the basis of the considered regularity.

The possibility (and necessity) of reducing the task of formulating a general (global, global) goal to the task of structuring it . Analysis of the processes of formulating a generalized (global) goal in complex systems shows that this goal first arises in the mind of the leader or other person making the decision, not as a single concept, but as some "blurry" enough. area.

Studies by psychologists show that the goal at any level of management first arises in the form of some "image" or areas & quot ;. To the greatest extent, this is manifested at the level of the global goal. At the same time, to achieve the same understanding of this area the goal of all decision-makers is, in principle, impossible in principle without its detailed elaboration in the form of a disordered or ordered (in the structure) set of simultaneously appearing interrelated subgoals that make it more specific and understandable for all participants in the process of goal-making.

The above led to the conclusion that the task of formulating a generalizing goal in complex systems can not only, but also should be reduced to the task of structuring or decomposition of the goal. The goal structure, formed collectively, helps to achieve the same understanding of the common goal by all decision-makers and performers. And this was confirmed in practice.

Dependence of the method of representing goals from the stage of cognition of the object. The goals can be represented in the form of different structures, similar to those shown in Fig. 1.10, i.e. with the help of: a) network graphs (decomposition in time - see Figure 1.10, a); b) in the form of hierarchies of different kinds (decomposition in space) - tree-like (see Figure 1.10, b), with "weak links" (see Figure 1.10, c), in the form of strata and echelons of M. Mesarovic (see Figure 1.10, d, d, respectively); c) in the matrix (tabular) form (see Figure 1.10, e, g). The matrix representations in Fig. 1.10, e and 1.10, x correspond to the hierarchical structures of Fig. 1.10, b and 1.10, in.

thematic pictures

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