Patterns of goal-setting, Dependence of the goal on external...

Laws of goal formation

Regularities the emergence and formulation of goals . Generalization of the results of studies of goal-formation processes conducted by philosophers, psychologists, cybernetics, and observation of the processes of justifying and structuring goals in specific conditions allowed to formulate some general principles, patterns that are useful to use in practice.

Dependence of the idea of ​​the goal and the formulation of the goal from the stage of cognition of the object (process) and from the time . An analysis of the definitions of the concept of purpose allows us to conclude that, when formulating the goal, one should strive to reflect in the formulation or in the method of presenting the goal the basic contradiction: its active role in cognition, in management, and at the same time the need to make it realistic, to direct with its help the activity to obtain a definite useful result. In this case, the formulation of the goal and the idea of ​​the goal depends on the stage of cognition of the object, and as the conception of the object develops, the goal can be reformulated.

In formulating and revising the goal, the team that carries out this work must determine in what sense at this stage of the consideration of the object and the development of our ideas about it the concept of "target" is used, to which point of the conditional scale "ideal aspirations for the future - the real end result of the (see Figure 3.2) is closer to the target wording. With the deepening of research, the cognition of the object, the target may shift to one side or the other of the scale and, accordingly, should be reformulated.

The dependence of the target on external and internal factors

When analyzing the reasons for the emergence and formulation of goals, it is necessary to take into account that external factors (external requirements, needs, motives, programs) and internal (needs, motives, programs of the system and its elements, goal implementers). At the same time, the latter are just as objective factors affecting the process of goal-forming as external factors (especially when using the concept of a goal in management systems as a means of motivating to action).

Goals can arise on the basis of the interaction of contradictions or coalitions both between external and internal factors, and between internal factors that exist before and again arise in self-sustained integrity.

This pattern characterizes the very important difference between "open", developing systems with active elements from technical systems displayed usually closed or "closed" models. The theory of management of the latter usually operates with the concept of purpose as external to the system, and in the "open", developing systems, the goals are not specified from the outside, but are formed within the system on the basis of the considered regularity.

The possibility (and necessity) of reducing the task of formulating a general (global, global) goal to the task of structuring it . Analysis of the processes of formulating a generalized (global) goal in complex systems shows that this goal first arises in the mind of the leader or other person making the decision, not as a single concept, but as some, sufficiently "blurred" area.

Studies by psychologists show that the goal at any level of management first arises in the form of some "image" or areas goals. To the greatest extent, this is manifested at the level of the global goal. At the same time, it is essentially impossible to achieve an equal understanding of this goal area by all decision-makers, without its detailed elaboration in the form of a disordered or ordered (in the structure) set of simultaneously emerging interrelated sub-goals that make it more specific and understandable for all participants in the goal-setting process.

This allows us to conclude that the task of formulating a generalizing goal in complex systems can not only, but should be reduced to the task of structuring or decomposition of the goal. The goal structure, formed collectively, helps to achieve the same understanding of the common goal by all decision-makers and performers.

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