Perception of color, Spectrum of visible radiation...

Perception of color

The perceived color of radiation depends on its spectral composition, color and brightness contrast with surrounding light sources and non-luminous objects and other objective factors. The same light effects can cause different sensations in different people, and for each of them the color will be different. Subjective perception of color depends on the adaptation of the eye to background light, color temperature, psychophysiological state of a person, individual hereditary features of the eyes (the degree of expression of polymorphic visual pigments), specific properties (presence of color blindness) and other situational psychological moments. Carriers of different cultures can also perceive the color of objects in different ways. Depending on the importance of different colors and shades in the everyday life of the people, different colors may have a greater or lesser reflection in the language. The ability of color recognition has dynamics depending on the age of the person. For all people, it is characteristic that combinations of colors can be perceived by them as harmonious (harmonious) or not.

Spectrum of visible radiation

When a white ray is decomposed in a prism, a spectrum is formed in which the radiation of different wavelengths is refracted at different angles (Figure 7.2). The colors in the spectrum, i.e. such colors that can be obtained with the help of light of one wavelength (more precisely, with a very narrow range of wavelengths) are called spectral colors. In natural conditions, as a rule, a person perceives not spectrally pure colors, but colors formed by reflection or transmission of various materials of sunlight having a virtually continuous spectrum. As a result, the effect of light of different frequencies is summed up (added up). Beams of light of different spectral characteristics when hit on the retina can be perceived in the same color (the effect of metamerism), but no mixed colors coincide with spectral colors. Spectral colors have the highest possible saturation within their color tone .

Getting the spectrum with a prism

Fig. 7.2. Getting a spectrum with a prism

A continuous spectrum of colors can be observed on a diffraction grating. A good demonstration of the spectrum is the natural phenomenon of the rainbow.

For reference

How to remember the colors of the spectrum. The order of colors in the spectrum (and in the rainbow) is easily remembered using several mnemonic phrases in which the initial letter of each word corresponds to the initial letter of the name of the corresponding color, for example:

• "Every hunter wants to know where the pheasant is sitting (option: "where the owl sits") to indicate the sequence of colors: red, orange, yellow, green, blue, blue, violet;

• "Pheasant sits, eyes closed, wanting to eat very much" - the colors are in the reverse order, i.e. purple, blue, blue, green, yellow, orange, red;

• "How?" Once Jacques-bell-ringer knocked down a lantern " (options: "head broke a street lamp, city broke a light");

• "Cat donkey, giraffe, blue rabbit sewn sweatshirts."

To recall where the red is in the rainbow strip, you should read the colors from the top down, - outside the rainbow arc is the "initial" red color, and further down and inside the arc - final purple. Inverted, spherical and other forms of the rainbow refer to the halo.

thematic pictures

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