Representation and use of information
In conditions of using information technologies, functions are distributed between a person and technical devices. When analyzing human activity, the most important are ergonomic (engineering-psychological) and psychological (socio-psychological) factors.
Ergonomic factors allow, first, to define a rational set of human functions, and secondly, to ensure rational connection of a person with technical means and information environment.
Psychological factors are of great importance, since the introduction of information technology radically changes human activities. Along with the positive moments associated with the rationalization of activities, the provision of new opportunities, there are also negative phenomena. This can be caused by various factors: a psychological barrier, complication of functions, other subjective factors (conditions and organization of work, wage level, productivity of work, skill change).
When working in an information technology environment, a person does not perceive the object itself, but some of its generalized information model, which imposes special demands on the compatibility of the user with various components of information technology.
An important feature that must be taken into account when developing and implementing information technology is the attitude of a person to information. It can be passive when the user is given information on the hard algorithm, and is active when the user creates the data he needs.
The main task of the operation of presenting information to the user is to create an effective interface in the "person-computer" system. At the same time, information is converted into a form that is user-friendly.
Among the existing interface options in the system "human-computer"; there are two main types: menu-based ( look & choose ) and based on the command language ( remember and type ). 
Interfaces such as menus make it easy for the user to interact with the computer, since they do not require a preliminary study of the language of communication with the system. At each step of the dialog, the user is presented with all possible commands at the given moment in the form of sets of menu items, from which the user should select the desired one. This way of communication is convenient for beginners and non-professional users.
The command-based interface requires the user to understand the syntax of the language of communication with the computer. The advantage of the command language is its flexibility and power.
These two ways of implementing the interface are extreme cases, between which the existence of various intermediate variants is possible. The components of the interface are shown in Fig. 4.12.
The technology of information representation should provide additional opportunities for users to understand the data, so it is advisable to use graphics, diagrams, maps.
It is expedient to build the user interface on the basis of the conceptual model of the domain, which is represented by a set of interrelated objects with their own structure. However, access to objects and their instances is possible only through a system of windows of various types. A number of windows are associated with a specific object. In accordance with this proposal in the scenario
Fig. 4.12. Interface components
user's work in the information content of the concepts of the domain we distinguish two phases:
• Selecting windows;
• work with windows.
For simplicity, the windows can be grouped according to functional needs. To this end, a partitioning mechanism is introduced, which provides the ability to create a hierarchy of functionally oriented partitions, each of which includes the required set of other partitions and windows. By specifying the windows for each of the objects, it is possible to specify valid modes for working with instances and the composition of visible attributes with modes of working with them. It is possible to select several partitions and several windows in them simultaneously.
Thus, the phase of object selection should be supported by the following functions:
• working with the general catalog of windows in the main section;
• creating a new section;
• deleting a section;
• Editing the description of the section;
• passing definitions and windows between sections;
• Movement in the hierarchy of sections;
• selecting sections for work;
• selecting windows for work.
Window positions can be linked to other windows through the appropriate commands from a sample set. Essentially, the windows specification specifies the script for working with instances.
A window is a means of communicating the user to the system. The window is represented as a special object. Designing the user interface is a trench specification process.
An example of a window interface is the MS Windows interface, which uses the desktop metaphor and includes a number of concepts that are close to natural (windows, buttons, menus, etc.).
The user of the information system for the most part is forced to use data from a variety of sources: files, databases, spreadsheets, e-mail, etc. At the same time, the data has a variety of forms: text, tables, graphics, audio and video data, etc. In this connection, the problem arises of the integration of information sources, which consists in that, firstly, the user should be provided not with data, but with information in the form most convenient for perception, and secondly, he must use the only universal The interface, allowing to work with the prepared information in a uniform way. Passive users, sometimes called consumers, have a number of specific qualities associated with the lack of time, desire and skill for a deeper study of the tools used. In this case, the algorithm of communication with the system should be extremely simple. Another part of users requires providing a sufficiently wide range of means of active influence on the information processes that are being performed.
These requirements are met by Web technology. The development of computer technology has led to a situation where instead of traditional parameters - performance, bandwidth, memory capacity, the interface with the user became the bottleneck. The first step in overcoming the crisis situation was the concept of hypertext, first proposed by Theodor Holm Nelson. At its core, hypertext is a plain text containing links to its own fragments and other texts (Figure 4.13).
A hypertext analogue can be considered a book, the contents of which are inherently links to chapters, sections, pages. Inside the book there are links to other sources. Hypertext was further developed with the advent of the Internet, which allowed placing texts on various, territorially remote computers. At the same time, further perfection of the interface was required, since the existing did not allow to present various information of a different nature, was limited and difficult to perceive,
Fig. 4.13. Hypertext
beers to a single array of structured information. As a result, the concept of a Web browser was proposed and implemented. The Web server acts as an information hub receiving information from different sources and in a uniform form representing its user. Web tools also provide information with the required level of detail through a Web browser. Thus, the Web is an infrastructure interface for users of different levels.
The undoubted advantage of Web technology is the convenient form of providing information services to consumers, which has the following features:
• Information is provided to the consumer in the form of publications;
• the publication can combine information sources of different nature and geographical location;
• changes in information sources are instantly reflected in publications;
• Publications may contain links to other publications, without restrictions on the location and sources of the latter (hypertext links);
• The consumer qualities of publications correspond to modern multimedia standards (text, graphics, sound, video, animation are available);
• The publisher does not care about the process of delivering information to the consumer;
• The number of potential consumers of information is almost unlimited;
• publications reflect current information, the delay time is determined solely by the speed of the preparation of the electronic document;
• The information provided in the publication is easily accessible through hypertext links and context search tools;
• Information is easily acquired by the consumer due to a wide range of visual opportunities provided by Web technology;
• The technology does not impose any special requirements on the types and sources of information;
• The technology allows for scalable solutions: increasing the number of concurrently served customers does not require a radical reorganization of the system.
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