Principles and algorithms of routing, Principles of routing...

Principles and algorithms for routing

Principles of Routing

Routing can be represented (interpreted) as a collection of tools that provide the optimal path (route) for the data packet from one node of the composite network to any other. The interconnection of packet subnetworks that operate according to their own rules to the composite network is carried out through gateways. Each gateway is able to receive a packet from one network and deliver it to the specified address in another network. As a result of packet translation through the gateway sequence, end-to-end packet routing is provided throughout the network.

Package Delivery Engine

Consider the mechanism implemented by the IP-protocol of interworking in networks with packet switching. Any message sent over the network is divided into fragments, which are supplied with the addresses of the sender and the recipient, as well as with the number of each packet included in the message. This addressing system allows any gateway to choose a route based on the current network status information. In this case, each packet can pass from the sender to the recipient on its own route. Since packets carry information about their place in the message, the sequence of their delivery to the end node does not matter. The receiver will arrange all fragments of the arriving packet according to their serial numbers.

Implementation of the delivery mechanism

One of the requirements for composite networks is ensuring its survivability and reliable delivery of messages. These requirements, as mentioned above, are not satisfied by the link layer devices (switches and bridges) connecting two network segments and localizing traffic within each of them. For networks with complex configuration, special tools have been developed, called routers (Routers). By combining heterogeneous networks with different network protocols, they provide efficient traffic separation using alternative paths between network nodes.

Routers differ in the number and type of their ports. They can be used for:

• Effective chart management in the presence of a large number of segments in the local Ethernet network;

• Ethernet network connections to other network types, such as Token Ring, FDDI;

• Ensure the output of local area networks to the global network and other purposes.

Routers control traffic based on a network protocol (higher than switches) when it is necessary to solve the problem of maximally efficient and fast delivery of a sent packet to its destination in networks with a complex topology and a large number of nodes in the presence of redundant paths.


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