Principles of management organization of developments in automated control systems
As it was shown above, in understanding the principles of building and organizing the functioning of the automated control system, the functional and securing parts, described in the previous paragraph, are distinguished.
Accordingly, when managing the development of automated systems, there are two main problems:
1. Formation of the structure of the FC and the selection on its basis of priority automation tasks.
2. Formation of the structure of the ACh ACS as an organizational form of interaction of all types of support (information, technical, organizational, etc.), necessary for the implementation of subsystems and tasks that are part of the structure of the FCA.
The solution of these two main problems is interrelated. On the one hand, the structure of the RV is determined by the structure of the FH. At the same time, the choice of the structure of the FC largely depends on the available technical, software and other means, i.e. is determined by the potential capabilities of the OC.
The main problems of managing the development of automated control systems, in turn, are divided into tasks that can often be handled in parallel.
For example, the first problem was divided as follows:
1.1. Prediction of the structure of the FCA.
Development of the forecast version of the structure of the FCA (for 15-20 years) and the main directions of the development of automated control systems (for 5-10 years).
1.2. Development of the structure of the AC of the ACU of the next stage (3-5 years).
This task was also called the "Selection of first-priority subsystems (task complexes) automation for the next ACS queue."
1.3. Selection of priority (most significant) tasks in the subsystems of the ACS and the sequence of their design and implementation.
1.4. Designing of ACS subsystems.
The second problem can be represented by the following subproblems:
2.1. The choice (justification) of the structure of the ACS control system.
2.2. Designing individual types of collateral.
In addition, it is important to create the organizational structure of the automated control system, in the existing ACS, which is determined by the composition and interconnection of individual structural divisions in the operating conditions of the automated control system. Therefore, the above main problems were subsequently added to the problem of control of developments in automated control systems.
The management system of the developments of ACS can be considered the third problem and divided it into the following tasks.
3.1. Development of the structure of organizational support for the management of developments in automated management systems (in the first stages, this task is reduced to determining the structure of the department developing the ACS, and as it develops - to determine the relationship between the development units and units that use the results of development in practice, as well as units that prepare and controlling the input information). Sometimes this component is singled out as an independent problem.
3.2. Creation of an information system to ensure the design of subsystems and tasks of automated control systems.
A stratified structure that determines the relationship of problems and sub-problems that arise during the development of the automated control system is shown in Fig. 5.1.
Fig. 5.1. Stages of ACS development
To manage the development of automated systems, the relevant guidance materials were prepared, in which the ASU was treated as an evolving system, and the concept of the queue was introduced. The first-stage ACS was developed as an automated information system - AIS. In the guidance materials, the procedure for developing the appropriate ACS queue (AIS) and putting it into operation was also discussed (Figure 5.2).
With the implementation shown in Fig. 5.1 structures were guided by the method shown in Fig. 5.2. The received structure of the FCS AC and the selection of the composition of the SWs were carried out on the basis of a survey of the existing enterprise management system and a feasibility study (TEO) and were the basis for the development of a technical task (TOR). After the approval and approval of the feasibility study and TK, the technical (TP) and working projects (RP) were performed and the automated control system subsystems were put into operation.
Fig. 5.2. The order of development of automated control systems
At the same time, practice has shown that the development of automated control systems can not be realized on the basis of one project. The concept of the ACS queue was introduced, and in the process of implementing the previous stage, the development of the structure of the FC and TK of the next stage began (Fig. one of the important regularities of the theory of systems was used - the regularity of historicity (see Chapter 3).
Fig. 5.3. The manifestation of the regularity of historicity in the development of automated control systems
In the development of each subsequent ACS queue, the sequence of steps shown in Fig. 5.2, was repeated.
Moreover, the practice showed that during the period of one turn when developing the subsystems, the steps shown in Fig. 5.2, also need to be repeated for each subsystem.
Typical provisions, model structures, development procedure and other methodological materials were developed, then combined into a single document - General industrial guidance materials (ORMM), regulating the course of development of automated control systems and OASU.
The clear order established by the ORMM accelerated the dissemination of experience in organizing the design of the automated control system, facilitated the accounting and comparative analysis of the progress of work on the creation of automated control systems in enterprises and industries. However, at the same time he limited the development of the ACS of a number of enterprises and NGOs, which was inevitable due to the law of "necessary diversity" WR Ashby (see Chapter 3); namely due to the restriction of the variety & quot ;, i.e. typing and, ultimately, through the unification of systems, simplification of the centralized management of developments in automated control systems was achieved, and automated control systems for development (ASUR) began to be developed.
The negative role of ORMM was subsequently realized, especially during the transition of enterprises to self-sufficiency and self-sufficiency. Typical solutions and structures can be used only at the initial stages of the creation of the ACS, and as they develop, individual features of specific enterprises and associations and the associated individuality of the MANAGEMENT SYSTEM are beginning to manifest themselves.
In these conditions, to manage the development of automated control systems, methodological materials are required that not only determine what needs to be done in the process of developing the automated control system and dictates the ready-made standard design solutions, but gives recommendations on how to make decisions on the choice of structure ACS, means of its implementation in specific conditions, how it is necessary to develop appropriate methods and models for decision-making on the management of AIS developments and ACS taking into account the specific features of enterprises and organizations.
Obviously, the principles of building and the effectiveness of automated control systems depend significantly on the level of development of information technology.
With the advent of the mid-1980s. Personal computers are correcting the idea of ACS from the CC and centralizing control - to distributed computing resources and decentralization of management. At the same time, the load on centralized computing resources and the upper levels of management is reduced, which allows them to concentrate large and long-term strategic tasks in them.
At the same time, in order to ensure effective management of large enterprises, the idea of creating integrated control systems remains an urgent one (see paragraph 5.7), and to provide information on groups of basic functions of organizational management of large enterprises and corporations to corporate information systems. >
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