Problems of goal formulation in managing developing systems
The role of goals in the management of developing systems with active elements. Features of biological and socio-economic objects in comparison with technical ones, as it was shown in Ch. 1, led to the emergence in the 20-ies. XX century. theory of organizational systems (tectology AA Bogdanov ), and in the 30-40's. XX century. the general theory of systems <(> L. von Bertalanffy [16,17,107]).
During the significant period of development of the theory of systems and its applied directions - system engineering, systemology, system analysis - the basis for the study and modeling of a wide class of systems was the open system Bertalanffy
In the development of this concept, as was shown in Ch. 1, a large contribution was made by В. G. Afanasyev , In. S. Tyukhtin , carried out in-depth and comprehensive studies of the laws of integrity; P. Ackoff and Ph. Emery , M. G. Makarov , Yu. I. Chernyak [91, 92], L.. A. Rastrigin [30, 70, 71], In. N. Sagatovsky and F. I. Peregudov , etc., whose research helped to understand and use for the management organization the concept of the goal as motivation, and not coercion, to activity, allowed to formulate the ones considered in Ch. 1 regularity of goal-forming taking into account the interaction of external and internal factors and were the basis for developing methods for structuring the goals and functions of organizational management systems.
At the same time, gradually the paradigm of an open system that helped to display the essence of biological objects (including the biological level of human equifinity) gradually began to be supplemented with increasing attention of researchers not to external factors of the environment that affects the existence and functioning of the system, but to internal active principles, which lead to manifestation in social and economic objects of such properties as nonstationarity of parameters and instability of behavior, unpredictability and uniqueness, bnost adapt to changing conditions (and not only in noise but also to control effects), the ability to change its structure and to produce behaviors, the ability and the desire to goal formation and others, discussed in Sec. 1.
Most of these properties are a consequence of the presence in the system of active elements, which determine the ability of the system to withstand entropic, destructive tendencies and create negentropic ones.
The fact that in complex systems not only regularities (energy, information), like the second law of thermodynamics ("the second beginning"), but also opposing them, were noticed by Bertalanffy . Then synergies And. Prigogine , dualism J. van Gigh [/ strong]  helped to more deeply understand the fundamental existence in the developing systems of two laws simultaneously: the desire to increase entropy (transition to a lower level of equifinality) and the manifestation of negentropic tendencies (underlying the laws of evolution of systems, transition to a higher level of equifinality), which cause complex dialectical relationships between the levels of hierarchical ordering of systems.
Initially, based on Bertalanffy , researchers explained the system's ability to withstand entropic tendencies by the openness of the system, its interaction with the environment. But then there were concepts based on the active beginning of the components of the system. Such concepts of management of socio-economic objects are based not only on the traditionally recommended methods of coercion (including methods of coercion to work in one form or another, methods that justify exploitation, violence, etc.), but recommend, using the activity of elements, to rely on the goal-setting, the organization of the processes of collective formation of goals-motivations to action, which contribute to an increase in the efficiency of the activity of active elements.
In order to realize the activating role of the goal in the systems of organizational management, it is necessary to ensure the completeness of the definition of the goals and functions of the enterprise, organization, region, etc. at the appropriate stage of their development, to assess the functions in terms of their importance, complexity, frequency of implementation, etc., and to formulate the structure of goals and functions for the selected level of the management system or the activity.
As a result of this analysis, the heads of the organization or its individual departments can receive recommendations on the need to strengthen attention to certain types of activities, production areas, management functions, and the appropriateness of redistributing financial, material, personnel and other resources. The resulting structure of goals and functions is the basis for the development or adjustment of the organizational structure of the enterprise, the region's management system, etc.
The main stages in the development of target management. The goal-setting problems have long been the subject of research by philosophers, psychologists, and cybernetics. But, since the 60-70's. XX century. these problems become the object of serious research in economics and management theory.
Awareness of the role of purpose and dedication in management systems led to the creation in foreign countries of so-called "thinkers" firms and corporations such as RAND, involved in the development of development forecasts, the formation and analysis of target structures ("target trees"), first in the field of military potential management (for which the PATTERN technique , described in paragraph 5.2). Then they turned to the study of purposeful systems, striving for an ideal . The development of these studies was a series of works on forecasting and prospective planning at various firms and at the national level in the USA (see paragraph 5.2).
For the sake of justice, it should be noted that in the history of our country there is also some practical experience in targeted management, including using the results of theoretical research.
Targeted management and planning in our country has been used since 1918 (GOELRO plan).
However, in the future, the idea of long-term planning has turned into planning "from what has been achieved", to the development of rigid directives for the next five-year plan, without predicting structural shifts in the organization of management of industry and the economy as a whole.
In the mid-1960's. The concept of program-oriented planning and management was proposed, which resulted in the inclusion of the category "target" in the system of economic and managerial concepts and decisions at the highest levels of government and economy.
In the 1970s. the research of domestic scientists developed the concept of the role of the goal in management as motivation for action, helped to realize the need to replace the rigid planning carried out in the form of developing directives for the five-year plan, the development of a comprehensive forecast (subsequently called the Integrated Program for the Development of Scientific and Technical Progress and its Socio-Economic Consequences) 20 years and the main directions of economic and social development of the country for 10-15 years).
It was also recognized that it was useful to involve the broad scientific community in the forecasting and long-term planning processes (ie, the goal-forming processes) - this term was introduced at that time for the generalized name of competent specialists, who were involved in the development of forecasts and main directions of development country, creating the appropriate commission under the USSR Academy of Sciences, the State Planning Committee of the USSR and the State Committee for Science and Technology of the Council of Ministers of the USSR.
This decision partially provided the conditions for the realization of the second pattern of goal-making - taking into account internal needs, motives, programs by including representatives of different strata of the population in commissions.
Such commissions were formed on a voluntary basis from the most competent representatives of the scientific community from different organizations (research institutes, enterprises, universities) from different republics and regions of the country. They developed forecasts and proposals for documents "The main directions of economic and social development ..." by industry, industry groups and cross-sectoral issues.
When developing and presenting these documents, the methods of structuring goals were used, which implements theoretical studies of patterns of goal-setting and goal structuring.
Given the territorial disunity of the members of the commissions, their work was mainly carried out in the form of a collection of written, well-grounded proposals (such as "scenarios") from commission members, periodic joint discussions of their points of view at committee meetings and preparation of general documents. "Proposals for the Comprehensive Program economic and social development of the country ", which were then passed on to the Council of Ministers of the USSR and the CPSU Central Committee for the development of documents" The main directions of economic and social development and the period of ... years (for the next 10-15 years) and "Five-year plan for ... years."As a result, not only the government and the Central Committee of the CPSU, but also a significant number of the most active and competent members of the society-scientists from academies of sciences, research institutes and universities, managers, researchers of enterprises and institutions, etc., were involved in this scale of work. n.
In addition, the project "The main directions of the country's economic and social development ... (for the next 10-15 years) was widely published in the periodical press, and any citizen had the right to make his corrections and new proposals, which also contributed to the realization of the second pattern of goal-making.Similar work was prescribed not only at the country level, but also at the level of regions, industries, scientific and production associations, which by that time began to be created to improve the planning and management of industry (two-stage management of the industry). This again corresponded to the theoretical recommendations on the need to break up the big uncertainty into more visible ones, which contributes to an increase in the objectivity of the management decisions taken.
Theoretically, conditions were created for participation in the forecasting and goal-setting of all comers. However, unfortunately, in practice the teams of industrial enterprises and other organizations, accustomed to the directives, rarely used the rights granted, and the processing of the received proposals using traditional methods of "voting", i.e. making decisions on most of the same type of proposals, were not allowed to endure "rare" (as a rule, containing radical promising proposals) and conflicting opinions not only on the pages of the press, but also for discussion at the level of the state's governing bodies of the country.
Thus, the mechanism targeted management, the forecasting system was created, but needed further improvement, clarification of their role in the management of society, the creation of appropriate methods and techniques for forecasting, structuring and analyzing goals, evaluating proposals.
For some period of the reform of the 1970s, often briefly referred to as Kosygin (since they were initiated by A. Kosygin ), allowed to increase efficiency national economy.
At the same time, in many cases, the program-targeted planning was again reduced to the development of targeted programs and plans by small teams of the management apparatus and the enforcement of these programs and plans by collectives of workers who had a passive role in goal-setting and for whom these target documents remained requirements dictated from above, coercion, and not a motivation for action.
In addition, even when, with the help of program-targeted management methods, managers who understand the crisis of former forms and methods of management have tried to activate workers, increase their interest in the results of their labor (and thereby increase labor productivity), they encountered the passivity of the vast majority of employees who are accustomed to directive planning.Attempts to increase the activity of employees of enterprises and organizations through the introduction of methods of self-financing and self-financing in the conditions of the former command and administrative management system led to the standardization of these new forms of management (introduced from above on the basis of directively defined forms of cost accounting without taking into account the specifics of enterprises) and allowed to fully realize self-organization and self-government at the level of enterprises and organizations.
The transition to new economic relations aimed at activating and stimulating the labor of producers through the return of their right to private property and the introduction of market mechanisms for regulating commodity exchange between producers and consumers of goods, activated a certain part of the population, demanded the introduction of new forms of management. Perestroika was aimed at great opportunities for implementing the principles of self-government at all levels - regional, city, district, enterprises and organizations.
In these conditions, the role of goal-setting, the organization of the processes of long-term planning at all levels of management, increases substantially and the need for studying, developing and using methods and techniques for organizing this process increases.
The regularities of the systems and patterns of goal formation, the methods of goal structuring and the automated dialog procedures considered in this chapter can help in the organization of target formation processes.
First of all, the heads of enterprises and organizations are faced with the problem of formulating a common (global) goal, which, as a rule, is initially sought to be formulated in the form of an "ideal-goal".
The third of those discussed in Section 1.7 of Ch. 1 of the patterns of goal-formation warns that this goal is almost impossible to formulate at once concretely, but you can actually determine only the area of the goal, the problem situation, to clarify which - to reduce the task of formulating a generalized goal to the task of structuring it. At the same time, it is still necessary to determine this area, although this is quite difficult. Therefore, first consider the problem of formulating a generalized "goal-ideal," which characterizes the area of goal structuring.
Using the regularity of equifinality when formulating a goal. Formulating Ideal Ideals is connected with the system of values of the individual, society, forms of existence of the community - a city, region, country, etc.
The value system determines the desired future, the ultimate level of development of the individual or community. In the theory of systems this limiting level, as was noted in Ch. 1, is characterized by the regularity equifinality. The need for the introduction of this concept arises from a certain level of complexity of systems. At the same time, living organisms become more complex as they evolve, and different states of equifinality can be observed at different periods of their life. This is most evident in man, which is the subject of study of many researchers - biologists, philosophers, engineers.
As an example, consider the following main levels of development of a complex system (which researchers call differently):
■ material level, which is determined by the innate needs and programs of the person (self-preservation, ie, eat, sleep, dress, have material benefits of various kinds); enterprises have a heightened focus on office equipment, especially in the initial period;
■ emotional (accessible entertainment, aesthetic perception of the world, the need for manifestation and realization of feelings of admiration, love, etc.); a real artist, for example, prefers not material and household goods, but spends the available funds on canvases, travel; enterprises at some stage of development begin to take into account the aesthetics of relations between employees and partners, forms of service;
And family-social (the implementation of the program of procreation, the creation of conditions for the upbringing of offspring, traditionally associated with family, family-social way of life); to this level is the formation of the mafia ( families of the oligarchs);
■ socially-public, determined by the relevant rules of the community of one type or another, fixed in legislation, ethical norms, traditions, etc. (history studies the development of ideas about this level in various social formations);
■ intellectual, which is characterized by a specific value system, focused mainly on the development of the creative abilities of the individual (for example, the atmosphere of academic towns in the initial period of their development can serve), the state's increased attention to science and education.
Of course, the formed personality or established enterprise has all levels. Perhaps each successive species includes the need to achieve the previous ones. However, there are other points of view: an intellectually developed person may not have solved not only family problems, but also material ones (according to the ideas of those who call this first level a priority). And, at least, at different periods of the individual's life, the values considered occupy a different place in his life; priorities, value orientations on the levels of personality development are different for different peoples (organizations) and vary with the development of man and civilization.
So, for example, "the American dream the initial period of development of capitalism in America - its own home, the garden (the first of these levels). The dream-ideal of young people of the 1960s, reflected in one of the popular songs of that period, "And I'm going after the fog, behind the dreams and the smell of the taiga ..." (emotional level). Continuing the examples, one could recall the Christian commandments (oriented to the level of culture and ethics), the moral code of the builder of communism, etc.
For us, the social and social level of development of organizations - a city, a region, a state is more interesting.
Here, first of all, you can rely on the В research. I. Vernadsky and his followers. In these works there is no mention of equifinality according to Bertalanffy, but they can help answer questions unresolved by the author of this pattern. Vernadsky's outlook is related to the notion of the sphere of reason -nosphere (the term was proposed by the French researcher P. Teilhard de Chardin at the seminar E. Leroy ) as the level of development of the community of people, other than the geosphere and biosphere, existed before the appearance of man. Developing his teaching, some philosophers suggest the concepts of the air sphere (spiritual sphere), the ethosphere (sphere of ethics), the sphere of morality.
At the present time, philosophers' studies formulate the characteristics of the existing and promising levels of human existence - anthropocentrism and anthropocosmism (the term was introduced in 1944 by the biologist H G. Cold] ).
In a simplified presentation, anthropocentrism is a consequence of the principle accepted by mankind - "man is the king of nature". In development, this principle - "man is the king of beasts", and further - generally everyone should strive to the top of the "pyramid" ("every soldier should strive to become a general" - a model of the Roman legion according to V. Bestuzhev-Lade ). Hence - egocentrism, man - the center of the universe, the ruler, the resources of nature - for the service of man, between people, communities and nature - contradictions, conflict situations, their extreme manifestations - world wars, totalitarianism, destruction of the Earth's resources, environmental problems; and as a result - the threat of the death of mankind (predictions of the Club of Rome) and the need to find ways out of the current multifaceted crisis.
Anthropocosmism is represented by the VN Sagatovsky Society, whose ideal is not the subordination of the world to the self-affirming person, but the state of the noosphere, where man consciously strives to harmonize the negentropic tendencies of society and nature. Personality and people who have adopted such a worldview do not absolutize their rights and freedoms, but strive for co-creation with other people and peoples, seek compromises, find their social niche, similar to ecological niches that have developed in nature.
Of course, the problem of harmonizing local and global criteria is difficult to resolve even in formalized models (for example, the problem of matching Pareto criteria is known). However, in complex systems, not only formal models are used in decision making: system analysis, in particular, recommends the combination of formal and informal models, the use of methods of activating intuition and the experience of specialists - decision-makers - value system carriers who can and should resolve contradictions with taking into account common sense, the need to preserve humanity, the region, the country, the Earth. And it is in this important role played by the studies in question and the need to use them in determining the "goal-ideal."
Applied to the society professor of St. Petersburg State Technical University B. A. Zhukov proposes to allocate more detailed levels of human and community development:
■ a situational a space of meanings in which each individual (or social group, people, region, country) considers another (another community) instrumentally, i.e. as a means to achieve their goals;
■ social space in which the individual strives to set socially significant goals (achieving power, position, wealth, etc.), and community goals can be recognized above individual ones and perhaps even suppression of local sub-goals for the sake of the achievement of a common goal (such a model of a system or community striving for an ideal is suggested, in particular, by R. Akoff and F. Emery );
■ the space of culture, in which another person (another community) is seen as a partner in the reproduction of culture and its development; each begins to reckon with the right to the existence of another and build models of his behavior, taking this fact into account; the relations between people (communities) are decided not by a majority of votes, but by mutual complementation, in mutual voluntary concessions, on the basis of a dialogue that rejects the evaluative attitude to the partner and admits the right to make mistakes;
■ space "eternal meanings", in which another person, people, country are perceived as a unique, original creation, self-worth; for this space is characterized not only by the recognition of the right to the existence of others, but also by interest in the other, towards its value system, and even the need for their borrowing, combining in joint models.
Classical capitalism, regulated by the first American constitution, based on the philosophy T. Hobbes (which belongs to the saying "man to man - wolf"), on individualism, competition, corresponds to the first of these spaces.
Dreaming of a community striving for an ideal, P. Ackoff and Ph. Emery  proposed principles that correspond to social space, formulating on their basis the above-considered value system.
In most of the works, the goals of the region are formulated either only taking into account the development of the economy (at the material level) or with the orientation toward the individual the tasks of ensuring the living conditions of the population are set (which again, in most cases, is disclosed in the framework of economic problems and social security ).
However, there appear works in which, when formulating the objectives of regional management, along with the task of "improving the quality of life of the local community", the task is to "increase its contribution to the development of the country", i.e. more general system, on the condition of which, by virtue of the regularity of integrity, the quality of life and the development of the region depend.
In conclusion, we reiterate the need to take into account the regularity of equifinality and its possible manifestations in the form of levels or spaces of the type considered when formulating the goals of governing the city, region, and country.
At the same time, we pay attention to the complexity of realizing the desired level in practice, since by virtue of the second of those discussed in Ch. 1 patterns of goal-setting formulation and implementation of goals depends on internal factors, i.e. from the level of development of the population living in the region. Therefore, the task of management, especially of local self-government, should include, as one of the most important, the goal of goal-setting - the formulation of the "goal-ideal", in whose name it is necessary to increase labor productivity, increase welfare, etc. And here there are no ready-made recipes. The systemic thinking is important, the ability to analyze specific situations.
Leaders need culture and caution from the use of ready-made formal models or convenient analogies; it is necessary to understand that the range of value orientations lies between the original "American dream", oriented to the right of private ownership of every person to a house and garden, to the dream H. G. Kholodniy that when you turn to the worldview of anthropocosmism, the whole world of man becomes his home.
When formulating the ideal goal leaders need not to condemn the values of other nations and not to blindly borrow them, but to take into account the mentality, value orientations of their people, the inhabitants of their region.
To enhance the objectivity of choosing "goal-ideal" It is useful to take into account the regularities of goal-formation considered above. In particular, the regularity of the dependence of the goal not only on the requirements of the supra-system and other external factors, but also on internal factors. And for this you need to measure the level of preparedness of the population for the introduction of certain innovations through sociological surveys, and as one of the methods that helps in goal-setting - to take into account the recommendation of "splitting" goal, proposed by L. A. Rastrigin [30, 70].
The original concept of spiraling development of needs, problems and goals is developing В. V. Kachala .
To clarify the formulation of the generalized goal-ideal and its details, it is necessary to apply structuring techniques, analyze the variants of the structures of goals and functions, choose the most significant for the particular period of development of the system, which is considered in the following sections.
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