Professional graphic editors, Graphic file formats...

Professional graphics editors

The Paint Graphic Editor is the simplest, so it does not have many features and functions inherent in modern professional graphic editors like Adobe Photoshop, GIMP, InkScape, Corel Draw, etc. The capabilities of such graphics editors include the following:

1. Using layers. The Paint editor works with only one layer of the image. In professional programs, where it is possible to create layers, different objects are placed on different layers, and then combined. The layers can be transparent or translucent.

2. Special fill methods. In the Paint editor, only the single-color primitive works. More powerful editors have the means to perform gradient fill (with a smooth transition from one color to another) and a variety of options texture fill (filling with a pattern or pattern that mimics the texture of the material, for example wood, metal, cloth, etc.).

3. Filters. Special methods for automatically processing images or a selection to create effects. Using filters, you can control the brightness or contrast of the image. Distorting filters mimic the viewing of a pattern through glass soaked in water, etc. Professional graphic editors count tens and hundreds of filters for special effects.

4. Automatic selection of areas. Powerful editors have tools for automatic selection. They can work on the principle of similarity of color: all elements of the image, having a color close to the specified, are highlighted automatically. This allows you to accurately select complex contours ( clipping of the contour).

5. Transformations In addition to stretching and tilting the image, there are more complex transformations, such as twisting. Many transformations exist for the transformation of three-dimensional objects.

6. Using plug-in extensions. Modern graphics editors allow you to connect additional components, called extensions (plug-ins).

Graphics File Formats

Graphical computer data is divided into two large branches: vector and bitmap. Vector is a set of geometric primitives. Most vector formats can also contain embedded raster objects or a link to a raster file. The difficulty in transferring data from one vector format to another is to use programs of different algorithms, different mathematics in the construction of vector and description of raster objects.

Raster formats also differ from each other in the ability to carry additional information: different color models, vectors, layers of different types, leading (distance between lines), animation.

The most popular graphic formats include the following.

BMP (English, bitmap - bitmap, bitmap) - graphic format for storing raster graphics without data compression. For each point (pixel) in several bytes, data about its color are stored. Dignity - versatility, support by most programs for viewing and editing graphic files.

TIFF (Tagged Image File Format) is a hardware-independent format for storing raster images of high quality without loss. It is widely used in various programs, when importing raster graphics into vector programs, publishing systems and printing.

GIF (Graphics Interchange Format) - A format that is popular when placing drawings on the Internet due to the compression of the file size. Moderate quality of colors and clarity of "newspaper advertising". Ability to overlay multiple images that mimic animation.

JPEG (Joint Photographic Experts Group) - a raster format based on image compression with little or no noticeable loss of information. Fine raster images of photographic quality, especially large ones with high print resolution, are well compressed. Worse for logos, charts, contour drawings and texts. In JPEG, only the final version of the work should be saved, since each re-saving leads to new losses. Recommended in electronic publications, including on the Internet.

PCD is a format for storing high quality photos and graphics in a special Photo CD format by Kodak.

PNG (Portable Network Graphics) - a format designed for networks, often replaces GIF and JPEG. Lossless and indexed PNG files are usually smaller than similar GIF, TIFF files.

PDF (Portable Document Format) - a format for file transfer of layout and graphics through the network, obtained by converting, converting electronic documentation from a number of programs: Word, Excel, PowerPoint presentations, etc. Allows hyperlinks to be filled fields, comments, inclusion of video and sound.

Adobe Photoshop Document is the internal format of the popular Photoshop raster editor. Allows you to record an image with many layers, masks and other information of the designer who worked in Photoshop, and is supported by a number of other programs.

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