PROTECTION OF INFORMATION IN COMPUTERS AND NETWORKS
After studying chapter 11, the student must:
• Dangers and threats of information loss arising in the process of application of information technology;
• Basic rules and information security requirements;
be able to
• work with protected media and information stores;
• The main methods of protecting information.
The need to protect information
The widespread use of information technology in human activities combined with the growing volume of network operations has led to the need to strengthen the protection of information on computers and networks.
Why is the protection issue "computer"? information has now come to the forefront among all tasks related to the introduction of information technology? Modern computer systems control and control the work:
• more than 40 thousand nuclear warheads
• tens of thousands of complex chemical plants and huge plants;
• thousands of airplanes simultaneously in air;
• more than 670 industrial nuclear reactors;
• hundreds of navigational, research and military satellites.
Damage from computer crimes is estimated annually by tens of billions in the monetary units of the most developed countries in the application of information technologies.
Basic principles of information security
According to Art. 16 p. 1 of the Federal Law "On Information, Information Technology and Information Protection"; protection of information is the adoption of legal, organizational and technical measures aimed:
1) to ensure the protection of information from unauthorized access, destruction, modification, blocking, copying, provision, distribution, as well as from other illegal actions in relation to such information;
2) the confidentiality of information of limited access;
3) the right to access information.
Three basic principles of information protection, which must be observed (more precisely - strictly and jointly performed) in the information system:
1. Privacy - required to carry a person to access certain information, a requirement not to transfer such information to third parties without the consent of its owner, as well as ensuring the impossibility of access to information to persons who do not have a permit (a computer language - appropriate access rights).
The definition of the concept is given in accordance with Art. 2 p. 7 of the Federal Law No. 149-FZ "On Information, Information Technologies and Information Protection". According to this definition, confidentiality is not a property of information, so the phrase "confidential information" without specifying the owner or other qualifying characteristics is incorrect.
2. Integrity - the absence of any unauthorized changes (both accidental and intentional) in the protected information.
3. Credibility is a guarantee that information is obtained from a known trusted or trusted source.
Violation of at least one of these principles indicates the presence of leakage or distortion of information.
Types of protected information
In accordance with Art. 5 and. 2 of the Federal Law "On Information, Information Technology and Information Protection"; information, depending on the category of access to it, is divided into public, as well as information that is restricted by federal laws (restricted access information).
In Art. Point 7 of Point 2 of the same Law states that publicly available information can be used by any persons at their discretion, subject to the restrictions imposed by federal laws on the dissemination of such information.
In Art. 1, paragraph 2 states that the effect of this Law, including in the protection of information, does not apply to "... relations arising from the legal protection of the results of intellectual activity and equated to them means of individualization." Therefore, the protection of publicly available information must be in accordance with the requirements of Part Four of the US Civil Code.
In Art. 16 no longer emphasizes that only restricted access information is protected. With respect to certain types of information of limited access (state, commercial, banking, medical secrecy, personal data, and others with a total of 36 species), there are legislative acts regulating the procedure for handling it. Based on this, it can be concluded that the protection is subject to public information that may be subject to substitution or distortion, as well as information of limited access.
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