Regularities in the formation of goals structures
The following three patterns develop the above patterns as applied to target structures.
At the initial stages of modeling the system, as a rule, it is more convenient to apply decomposition in space and preferably - tree-like hierarchical structures. Appearance of weak hierarchies can be explained by the fact that the goals of higher hierarchical levels are formulated too "close" to the ideal aspirations for the future, and the representation of performers about the goals-tasks and sub-goal-functions can not provide these aspirations.
The representation of an expanded sequence of sub-goals (functions) in the form of a network model requires a good knowledge of the object, the laws of its functioning, the technology of production, and so on. Sometimes the network structure can not be formed immediately, and subsequent subgoals can be advanced as the previous ones are reached, i.e. The space between the generalizing goal and the original initial understanding of the first subgoal will be filled gradually.
Such a representation can also be used as a control tool, when the manager is well aware of the ultimate goal and its decomposition in time, but I'm not sure that the ultimate goal will be immediately understood by the performers; then he can advance sub-goals to them gradually as they reach the previous one, correcting them taking into account the opinions and capabilities of the performers. Apparently, the deployment of hierarchical goals structures in time, that is, a combination of the decomposition of the goal in space and time.
The manifestation of the integrity pattern in the structure of goals. In the hierarchical structure, the regularity of integrity (emergence) manifests itself at any level of the hierarchy. With respect to the structure of goals, this means that, on the one hand, the achievement of a higher-level goal can not be fully achieved by achieving sub-goals subordinate to it, although it depends on them. On the other hand, the needs, programs (both external and internal) need to be investigated at each level of structuring, and the different subdivisions of sub-goals obtained by different decision-makers can be different due to different uncertainty disclosure. different DMOs can offer different hierarchical structures of goals and functions, even when using the same structuring principles and techniques.
In other words, the effect of goal-forming is manifested at each level of the hierarchy. In this case, great uncertainty is, as it were, broken down into smaller ones. Accordingly, the task of analyzing the needs, motives, programs that affect the formation of a generalized goal, is also broken down into subtasks of analysis of more particular needs, motives, programs at each level. As a result, it becomes possible to reconcile the views of decision-makers at each step of structuring.
Regularities in the formation of hierarchical goals structures. Given that the most common way of representing goals in organizational management systems is tree hierarchical structures ("goal trees"), we give some recommendations for their formation:>
■ The techniques used to form tree hierarchies of goals can be reduced to two approaches: a) the formation of structures "from above" - methods of structuring, decomposition, targeted or focused approach; b) the formation of goals structures bottom - morphological, linguistic, thesaurus, terminal approach; in practice, these approaches are usually combined;
■ the objectives of the lower level of the hierarchy can be considered as a means to achieve the goals of the higher level, while they are also targets for the level of the underlying one (the "two-faced Janus" property); Therefore, in real conditions, simultaneously with the use of philosophical concepts, "goal", "sub-goal", it is convenient to assign different names to different levels of the hierarchical structure, such as "directions", "programs", "tasks", "tasks" etc.);
■ In the hierarchical structure, as the transition from the upper level to the lower one occurs, there is, as it were, the displacement of the scale considered above (see Figure 1.4) "scales" from the goal-direction (goal-ideal, dream-goal) to specific goals and functions, which at the lower levels of the structure can be expressed in the form of expected results of a specific work, indicating the criteria for evaluating its implementation, while at the upper levels of the hierarchy, be either expressed in general requirements (for example, "improve efficiency"), or not at all in the formulation of the goal;
■ In order for the structure of the goals to be convenient for analysis and management, it is recommended that it be presented with some requirements: the dismemberment at each level must be commensurate, and the selected parts logically independent; signs of decomposition (structuring) within the same level should be unified; the number of hierarchy levels and the number of components in each node must be (by virtue of Miller's conjecture or the Kolmogorov number) K = 7 ± 2. These requirements are not always compatible, and in practice one must seek compromises;
■ The process of deploying a generalized goal in a hierarchical structure, in principle, may be infinite, but in practice the situation is different: firstly, due to Miller's hypothesis, the number of hierarchy levels should be limited to 5-7, and secondly, on what At this level, there is a need to change the language descriptions of sub-goals and in order not to create difficulties in the perception of structure, it is advisable to consider one "goal tree" that part of the structure that can be formed in terms of one language (political, economic, engineering, technological, etc.); in other words, there is a need for a stratified representation of the structure of goals.
The considered regularities should be taken into account when developing structuring techniques and goal structures, as illustrated in the following chapters.
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