Regularities of hierarchical ordering of systems
This group of patterns is closely related to the regularity of integrity, with the dismemberment of the whole into parts. However, it characterizes the interaction of the system with its environment - with the environment (significant or significant for the system), the supersystem, the subordinate systems. Therefore, the following regularities are separated into an independent subsection.
Communicative . This pattern is the basis of the definition of the system B. N. Sadovsky and E. G. Yudin , given in paragraph 1.1, from which it follows that the system is not isolated from other systems, it is connected by a multitude of communications with the environment, which in turn is a complex and heterogeneous entity , which contains the supersystem (a system of higher order, which specifies the requirements and constraints of the system under study), subsystems <(i lower, subordinate systems) and systems of the same level with the considered.
Such a complex unity with the environment is called the regularity of communicativity, which, in turn, easily helps to move to hierarchy as the patterns of the construction of the whole world and any system selected from it.
Hierarchy . The regularity of hierarchy, or of hierarchical ordering, was among the first laws of the theory of systems that L. von Bertalanffy singled out and investigated [16, 17]. He, in particular, showed the connection between the hierarchical orderliness of the world and the phenomena of differentiation and negentropic tendencies, i.e. with the laws of self-organization, the development of open systems, discussed below. On the allocation of levels of the hierarchy of nature, some classification of systems are based and, in particular, the classification considered K. Boulding .
The need to take into account not only the external structural side of the hierarchy, but also the functional interrelations between the levels, Academician В drew attention. A. Engelhardt . On the examples of biological organizations, he showed that a higher hierarchical level exerts a directing influence on the underlying level subordinate to him, and this effect is manifested in the fact that the subordinate members of the hierarchy acquire new properties that they did not have in an isolated state (confirmation of the provision on the effect of the whole on elements listed above), and as a result of the appearance of these properties, a new, different "whole image" is formed; (the effect of the properties of the elements on the whole). The new whole that arises in this way acquires the ability to carry out new functions, which is the goal of the formation of hierarchies. In other words, we are talking about the regularity of integrity (emergence) and its manifestation at each level of the hierarchy.
These features of the hierarchical structures of systems (or, as is sometimes called hierarchical systems) are observed not only at the biological level of the development of the universe, but also in social organizations, in the management of an enterprise, association, state, in presenting the design of projects of complex technical complexes and
The study of hierarchical ordering in organizational systems using an information approach (see Chapter 3) made it possible to conclude that there are more complex interrelationships between levels and elements of hierarchical systems than it can be reflected in the graphical representation of the hierarchical structure. In particular, even if there are no explicit links between the levels of the hierarchy ("horizontal"), they are still interconnected through the higher level.
For example, in the production and organizational structures of an enterprise from a higher level, it depends which of these elements will be chosen for promotion (with the preferences of some excluding the encouragement of others) or, alternatively, which element will be entrusted with unrewarding or unprofitable work (again , it will free others from it.)
Thus, hierarchical representations help to better understand and explore the phenomenon of complexity.
Highlight the main features of hierarchical ordering from the point of view of the utility of using them as models of system analysis.
1. The pattern of communicativity manifests itself between the levels of the hierarchy of the system under study, and therefore each level of hierarchical ordering has complex interrelations with the higher and lower levels.
According to the metaphorical formulation used by A. Each level of the hierarchy has the property of the "two-faced Janus": the "face", directed towards the lower level, has the character of an autonomous whole (system), and the "face", directed towards the node ( vertex) of the higher level, reveals the properties of the dependent part (the element of the superior system, which is the component of the higher level for which it is subordinate).
This specification of the regularity of hierarchy explains the ambiguity of the use in terms of complex organizational systems of concepts system and subsystem & quot ;, target and tool (the element of each level of the hierarchical structure of goals acts as a goal in relation to the underlying and as a "sub-goal", but starting with some level, and as a "means" in relation to the higher goal), which is often observed, as noted above, in real conditions and leads to incorrect terminological disputes.
2. The pattern of integrity (ie, qualitative changes in the properties of components of a higher level compared to the components of the underlying one) is manifested in it at each level of the hierarchy.
At the same time, the combination of elements in each node of the hierarchical structure leads not only to the appearance of new properties in the node and the loss of the unified components of the freedom of manifestation of some of its properties, but also to the fact that each subordinate member of the hierarchy acquires new properties that did not exist in it in an isolated state.
Thanks to this feature, hierarchical representations can be used to investigate systems and problem situations with uncertainty.
3. One and the same system can be represented by different hierarchical structures.
And it depends on: a) the purpose of the system, the goal (different hierarchical structures may correspond to different wording of the goal); b) structuring techniques; c) history of development of the persons forming the structure (for the same purpose, if the structure is assigned to different persons, depending on their previous experience, qualification and knowledge of the object, different structures can be obtained, ie, to uncover uncertainty in different ways problem situation).
4. Owing to the considered features, hierarchical representations are a means of investigating systems with uncertainty: there is as it were a dismemberment large uncertainties are more "small", better amenable to research.
However, even if these small uncertainties can not be fully explained and explained, nevertheless hierarchical ordering partially removes the general uncertainty, provides at least a controlled decision-making control for which a hierarchical representation is used.
In connection with what was said above, at the stage of structuring the system (or its purpose), it is possible (and necessary) to set the choice of the structure option for further research or system design, process control organization, enterprise, project, etc. In order to help in solving similar problems, we develop methods for structuring, evaluation methods and comparative analysis of structures, examples of which will be considered in later chapters.
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