Regularities of systems development
Recently, more and more people are beginning to realize the necessity to take into account the principles of their change in time when modeling systems, for the understanding of which it is useful to apply the regularities of the group under consideration.
Historicity . It would seem, obviously, that any system can not be unchanged, that it not only arises, functions, develops, but also perishes, and everyone can easily to give examples of the formation, flowering, decay (aging) and even death (death) of biological and social systems, but it is still difficult to determine these periods for specific cases of development of organizational systems and complex technical complexes. Not always the leaders of organizations and designers of technical systems take into account that time is an indispensable characteristic of the system, that each system obeys the regularity of historicity, and that this pattern is as objective as integrity, hierarchical ordering,
Therefore, in the practice of design and management, the need to take into account the laws of historicity is beginning to attract increasing attention. In this case, the regularity of historicity can not only be taken into account, passively fixing aging, but also used to prevent death system, developing the "mechanisms reconstruction, reorganization of the system to save it in a new capacity.
It is necessary to predict the points of the beginning of a decline in efficiency and to output the system to a new level of equifinality, similar to the one shown in Fig. 3.18.
Fig. 3.18. Accounting for the regularity of historicity
In particular, according to the theory of I. Adizes, proposed in the late 80's. the last century for the survival and development of the organization, all stages of the life cycle can be divided into two groups: the stages of growth and the stages of aging. Growth starts from birth and ends in blossom (nursing, infancy, the stage of rapid growth, youth, flowering), aging - with stabilization and ending with the death of the organization (stabilization, aristocracy, bureaucratization and death). Therefore, during the period of stabilization, it is necessary to forecast a new level of development.
The idea of the regularity of historicity was applied in practice.
So, in the development of automated control systems (ACS), it was recommended that in the middle of the design period of the previous development stage of the automated control system (ACS of the 1 st, 2 nd stage, etc.) begin the conceptual design and the formation of the technical task (TOR) for the design of the next ACS queue (which is conditionally shown in Figure 3.18).
A similar procedure for updating the Comprehensive Program (forecast) and the Main Directions of the country's economic and social development in the middle of each five-year plan was envisaged in the USSR during the reforms of the 1970s. XX century.
When creating complex technical complexes, it is recommended to adjust the technical design already in the design process, taking into account the aging of the idea underlying it, to consider not only the issues of creating and ensuring the development of the system, but also the question of when and how it should be destroyed , providing for the "mechanism" of its destruction or self-destruction), and when creating technical documentation accompanying the system, include not only the operation of the system, but also the period of life, liquidation. When registering enterprises, it is required that the Charter stipulate the stage of liquidation of the enterprise.
Regularity of self-organization
Among the main features of self-organizing systems with active elements in Table. 3.5, the ability to resist entropic tendencies, ability to adapt to changing conditions, transforming its structure, etc. These outwardly manifested abilities are based on a deeper law based on the combination of two contradictory tendencies in any real developing system: on the one hand, for all phenomena, including for developing open systems, the second law of thermodynamics is valid ("second start" ), i.e. aspiration to increase of entropy , and on the other hand, there are negentropic tendencies underlying the evolution. J. van Gigg calls this feature of developing systems "dualism" .
Both tendencies are inherent in all levels of development of matter. However, at the levels of the inanimate nature, the negentropic tendencies are weak and they are rarely measured, and as the matter develops, especially since the biological level, counteraction to the "second start" (which was the basis for Bertalanffy to distinguish a special class of open systems having specific laws, in particular, the presence of negentropic tendencies opposing the second principle). And in humans and in organizational systems, negentropic tendencies are not only observed, but sometimes measured (for example, by appropriate tests one can determine the natural curiosity or the "school potential" of the personality, which is the basis of her activity in cognitive and transformative activity).
When modeling negentropic tendencies in technical systems I am. Z. Tsypkin introduced the concept of adaptivity and developed the theory of adaptive systems. Originally, this term was also transferred to organizational systems.
However, it was more convenient for such systems to introduce the term increase in organization, order and to call the pattern of manifestation of negentropic tendencies by the law self-organization .
The study of self-organization processes are engaged in various scientific areas - from chemistry and biology to cybernetics and systems theory. In the emergence of this pattern, a large contribution was made by A. G. Ivakhnenko , developed the theory of self-organization for technical systems.Important results in understanding the pattern of self-organization have been obtained in studies that are attributed to the developing science, called synergetics.
The term synergetics was introduced by the German physicist G. Hacken in studies of cooperative processes ("synergism") in lasers and non-equilibrium phase transitions. By this term, Haken proposed to name an interdisciplinary direction for combining similar phenomena in other physical environments.
In this sense, the term synergetics more corresponds to the regularity of integrity, to the notion of synergism in biology. At the same time, the term synergism does not reflect the appearance of a whole new properties, and therefore in the theory of systems, the term emergence (from emerge - appear).Belgian scientist IR Prigozhin, also called his science of self-organization synergies, came to his ideas from the analysis of specific chemical reactions that lead to the formation of an unstable, dissipative (decaying) spatial structure formed by the dissipation (dissipation) of the energy used by the system and capable of perceiving new energy from the environment, due to which the former structure can change and the system can go into a new state. The simplest analogue of similar structures, investigated by thermodynamics, is the Benard effect (the structure arising at the time of the boiling).
In the future, IR Prigozhin and his followers showed that such phenomena arise in nonlinear nonequilibrium systems under the influence of fluctuations in states when the system is remote from the point of thermodynamic equilibrium. The points at which a system can be transformed into a new state are called bifurcation (bifurcation) points (bifurcations, ramifications), since they have a choice (depending on random factors), which of the new states passes to the system.>
Synergetics of IR Prigogine is the basis of the pattern of self-organization.
However, the concepts introduced in it with respect to chemical processes are not yet sufficiently well interpreted for socioeconomic systems, and therefore in the theory of systems the preference is given to the term "law of self-organization" in order to explain the regularities underlying the development of systems.
Initially, based on Bertalanffy, the researchers explained the ability of the system to withstand the entropic tendencies of the openness of the system, i.e. its interaction with the environment.
In particular, L. A. Rastrigin in one of the popular brochures explains this pattern as follows: Any system isolated from other systems can only collapse (. Entropy tendencies - Aut.) ... .
But in the future there were studies based on the active beginning of the components of the system.
The search for the gene the developing information system was occupied by F. E. Temnikov (see Chapter 4); regularities s.instemogenetics explores A. I. Subetto ; in the one considered in Ch. 5 models target creation spaces (V. II Sagatovsky, F. I. Peregudov, etc.), along with interaction with a complex environment, the initiatives of the system proper, due to the self-movement of integrity, the activity of the elements of the system are taken into account.
In complex developing systems, the pattern of self-organization is manifested in the fact that, depending on the prevalence of entropic or negentropic tendencies, a system of any level can either develop in the direction of a higher level of equifinality and move on it, or, on the contrary, there can be an entropic process of decline and transition of the system to a lower level of existence.
The study of the deep causes of self-organization, self-movement of integrity shows that the basis of the considered regularity is the dialectics of the part and the whole in the system. Evaluation of the degree of integrity helps to find the point of beginning of a decline in the efficiency of the system, in which the transition to a new level of equifinality is advisable.
In an effort to understand and better reflect in the model the process of development, the formation of the system, it is useful to supplement the considered group of regularities with laws based on the laws of dialectics.
For example, in , it is proposed to take into account in the modeling of complex developing systems the laws of dialectics, such as variability, the unity of opposites, the transition of quantitative changes to fundamental qualitative ones. These regularities were used in the development of the formalized apparatus for information analysis of AA Denisov's systems.
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