# Regularities of systems, Regularities of interaction...

## System Regularities

Regularities of functioning and development of systems (in a shorter formulation - regularities of systems ) - system-wide regularities characterizing the fundamental features of the construction, functioning and development of complex systems. Such patterns L. von Bertalanffy at first called system parameters, and A. Hall [89] - macroscopic properties or patterns.

The patterns of systems can be divided into four groups (see Figure 1.21).

Fig. 1.21

## Regularities of interaction of a part and a whole

In the process of studying the features of the functioning and development of complex open systems with active elements, a number of regularities have been revealed that help to better understand the dialectics of the part and the whole in the system in order to take them into account when making decisions. Consider the main of these patterns.

Integrity. The regularity of integrity ( emergence ) manifests itself in the system in the appearance of (emerge - appear) in it new properties that are missing from the elements. L. von Bertalanffy considered emergence as the main systemic problem. [17]

The manifestation of this pattern can easily be explained by examples of the behavior of populations, social systems and even technical objects (the properties of the machine differ from the properties of the parts from which it is assembled).

In order to better understand the pattern of integrity, it is first of all necessary to take into account its two sides:

1) the properties of the system (integer) are not a simple sum of the properties of the constituent elements (parts) :

(1.7)

2) the properties of the system (the whole) depend on the properties of its constituent elements (parts):

(1.8)

In addition to the two main sides, one should keep in mind one more:

3) the elements integrated in the system, as a rule, lose some of their properties inherent to them outside the system, i.e. the system seems to suppress them; but, on the other hand, the elements, hitting the system, can acquire new properties.

Example

Sensors, transistors, resistors and other parts can be assembled by the machine control system. In this case, the system derived from the component-elements shows new properties in comparison with the properties of each of the individual elements, and the elements lose some of their properties when they merge into the system. For example, a transistor can be used in different modes of operation in different devices - radios, televisions, etc., and becoming an element of the automatic control system of the machine, it lost these capabilities and retained only the property to work in the required mode for this circuit. Similarly, the production system during working hours suppresses its vocal, choreographic and some other abilities from its working elements and uses only those properties that are necessary for the production process to be carried out. Even more largely inhibits the manifestation of human capabilities conveyor.

Thus, the first aspect of the integrity pattern characterizes the change in the relationship of the system as a whole with the environment (in comparison with the interaction of individual elements with it) and the loss of certain properties by the elements when they become elements of the system. These changes are so striking that it may seem that the properties of the system do not depend on the properties of the elements at all. Therefore, it is necessary to pay attention to the second side of the continuity pattern.

Example

If the transistor (or other element) fails or if a sensor with a different sensitivity is delivered, then the control system of the machine will cease to exist and perform its functions, or at least its characteristics will change (in the second case). Similarly, the replacement of elements in the organizational structure of the enterprise management system can significantly affect the quality of its operation.

The integrity property is related to the purpose for which the system is created. In this case, if the goal is not explicitly specified, and the displayed object has integral properties, you can try to determine the goal or expression connecting the goal with the means of achieving it (objective function, system-forming criterion), by studying the reasons for the appearance of the integrity law.

In the above example, the integrity is determined by the design of the machine control system, the technological scheme of the interaction of parts and assemblies. But in similar examples, the goal is easy to formulate. But in organizational systems, it is not always easy to understand the reason for the emergence of integrity, and it is required to conduct an analysis that allows to identify, which led to the emergence of holistic, systemic properties.

The study of the causes of the emergence of holistic properties in the theory of systems is given great attention. However, in a number of real situations, it is not possible to identify factors that cause the emergence of integrity. Then the system views become a means of investigation. Due to the fact that the display of an object in the form of a system implies, by virtue of the regularity of integrity, qualitative changes when elements are combined into a system and when moving from system to element (and these changes occur at any level of the system's dismemberment), one can at least structure, but represent an object or process , for the study of which can not be immediately formed a mathematical model that requires the identification of exact, deterministic relationships between the elements of the system.

In other words, using the concepts system and structure , you can display problem situations with uncertainty, while separating the large the uncertainty is more "small", which in some cases is easier to learn, which helps to identify the causes of qualitative changes in the formation of the whole of the parts. Separating the system, you can analyze the reasons for the emergence of integrity based on the establishment of cause-effect relationships of a different nature between parts, part and whole, identifying the causal conditionality of the whole environment.

Along with studying the reasons for the emergence of integrity, it is possible to obtain useful results for practice by a comparative evaluation of the degree of integrity of systems (and their structures) for unknown reasons for its occurrence. In connection with this, let us turn to a regularity, dual to the regularity of integrity. It is called physical additivity, independence, summative, isolation.

The property of physical additivity is manifested in a system that, as it were, decays into independent elements; then it becomes fair

In this last resort, you can not talk about the system. But, unfortunately, in practice there is a danger of artificial decomposition of the system into independent elements, even when they appear as elements of the system with an external graphic image.

Strictly speaking, any developing system is, as a rule, between the state of absolute integrity and absolute additivity, and the system state (its "slice") can be characterized by the degree of manifestation of one of these properties or tendencies to its growth or decrease.

(1.9)

To assess these trends, A. Hall [/ strong] [38, 89] introduced two conjugate patterns, which he called "progressive factorization" - the desire of the system to a state with increasingly independent elements, and progressive systematization - the desire of the system to reduce the independence of elements, i.e. to greater integrity.

In the following A. A. Denisov introduced comparative quantitative estimates of the degree of integrity a and the coefficient of use of the properties of the elements of β as a whole, i.е. freedom of elements in the manifestation of their properties (Table 1.7). The possibility of obtaining such estimates on the basis of an information approach to the analysis of systems is shown in Ch. 3, and their application for a comparative analysis of the organizational structure of the enterprise - in Ch. 8.

Table 1.7

 Regularities of the interaction of part and the whole The degree of integrity of the. The coefficient of freedom of elements 3 1 0 Progressive systematization α & gt; β Progressive factorization α & lt; β 0 1

Integrity . This term is often used as a synonym for integrity. However, some researchers (for example, VG Afanasyev [15]) single out this pattern as an independent one, trying to emphasize interest not to external factors of manifestation of integrity, but to deeper reasons , causing the occurrence of this property, to factors that ensure the preservation of integrity.

Integrative are called system-forming, system-preserving factors, among which an important role is played by the heterogeneity and inconsistency of the elements (investigated by the majority of philosophers), on the one hand, and their desire to join the coalition (which was noticed by AA Bogdanov [18] and investigated AA Malinovsky [75] ]) and M. Mesarovic [8, 54]), on the other hand.

In this regard, we note that the bearers of a holistic knowledge of the world are philosophical concepts, relying on which we can supplement the pattern of integrativity with recommendations based on the laws of development of systems based on the laws of dialectics. We also draw attention to the fact that for complex developing systems, in principle, it is impossible to develop a comprehensive list of recommendations for the creation and preservation of integrity, and that the problem of choosing and preserving integrative factors must be addressed in specific applications on models combining the means of qualitative and quantitative analysis.

## thematic pictures

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