Security of information systems used in management
The modern world is at a stage of its development, which experts call the information society . This means that in all fields of activity information, and, consequently, the processes connected with its reception, processing and use come to the fore. Information has become a determining resource for the successful operation of almost any enterprise. The statement "Who owns the information, owns the world" becomes a reality.
As it was established in the previous chapters, for the successful implementation of management activities, information is needed - one of the most valuable managerial resources.
Any information necessary to satisfy the needs of the information exchange entity must meet the following requirements:
• completeness, i.e. sufficiency of available information for making the right decisions;
• Reliability, i.e. the lack of distortion in the information received, introduced accidentally or intentionally;
• Timeliness, i.e. receiving information exactly at the time when it is needed.
Obtaining incomplete or distorted information, as well as blocking access to it, can lead to incorrect management decisions.
In addition, in most cases, information is of the greatest value only because of the unknown to competitors or attackers. Such information will be called confidential , or constituting the trade secret of the organization. Such information must be protected from leakage.
Information leakage - the process of its uncontrolled spread beyond the circle of persons who have the right to work with this information.
According to Western experts, a leak of 20% of information constituting a trade secret in sixty out of a hundred leads to bankruptcy of the firm. No even the most successful US firm can survive for more than three days if its confidential information becomes publicly available.
Gaining confidential information from organizations is called industrial espionage . As in classical intelligence, it distinguishes the following types: agent, legal and technical.Aggressive industrial espionage is carried out by hidden and unlawful methods with the help of persons called agents. This species is the most dangerous, because it is multifunctional, can solve any tasks and has many forms of manifestation, and protection from it is most difficult. In addition, the methods of espionage are the oldest, proven and repeatedly tested. In the XX century. this kind of espionage has been particularly intensive due to numerous wars.
In connection with the development of modern information technology and the widespread availability of a huge amount of information, industrial espionage can also be carried out by legal methods. The use of open, not prohibited by legal norms methods is a distinctive feature of legal industrial espionage. Moreover, in this situation, such actions are often called market research and similar terms.
The key to successful activity in this area is highly qualified analysts, since the basis for legal methods of obtaining protected information is a careful analytical processing of various data that are openly published in specialized journals, reports, scientific works, exhibition prospects, as well as received from other open sources. Such data is not secret in itself and does not allow obtaining protected information, but, compared with each other and analytically processed, acquire a different meaning.
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