Stages of transition to an information society
The solution listed in p. 2.3 tasks will allow to pass the first stage of the information society formation - the stage of computerization. At the same time, it is planned to advance the development of scientific and technical areas that directly ensure the creation and effective use of new information technologies, the modernization of the design, technological and industrial bases for the production of information tools and their elements, and the extensive dissemination of computer and microprocessor technology to various areas of human activity. A system is beginning to be created that ensures the formation of universal computer literacy as the basis for educating the population's information culture. Thus, the main task of the stage is to saturate the city with computational and microprocessor technology.
The second stage envisages the development of the region's information infrastructure and provision of conditions for its inclusion in the global economic system.
At this stage:
• Ensuring the needs of the region's population in the media of information technology, primarily in personal computers and peripheral devices;
• Creation of a wide network of banks and databases;
• creation of local and corporate information networks and support zones for the formation of the information society and their connection to global networks;
• Creation of a wide integrated network of telephone and digital communications.
The stage is characterized by computer development of the information fund, loading it into databases, integrated into local and corporate information networks. Free access to information stored in such databases has only a limited number of users. There is a connection of these networks to the global ones and their integration. The formation of an information culture of the population continues. The second stage in the formation of the information society can be called the stage of personalization of the information fund and the integration of information networks.
The goal of the third stage is the development and satisfaction of the basic information needs of the population.
This step includes:
• the completion of the creation of an information infrastructure and its integration as an integral element in the global infrastructure;
• mass use of the latest information tools, systems and technologies in all spheres of human activity;
• Providing every inhabitant of the region with free access to all the information, the need for which arises in the course of his activities, recreation and at home;
• Completion of education of the population's information culture.
The third stage in the formation of the information society is characterized by providing free access to all the information accumulated by mankind, the opportunity not only to use the city, nationwide and world information funds, but also to replenish them directly. The information fund becomes the property of almost every resident and turns into the main resource of the city's development, therefore the third stage can be called the stage of socialization and actualization of the information fund.
The implementation of the above tasks implies the further development and introduction in all spheres of human activity of promising information technologies that allow a person to live and work in a new information environment. These technologies support basic information processes that support the preparation, collection, transmission, accumulation and storage of information, and the transformation of data into knowledge based on models of formalization and presentation of knowledge. It is possible to distinguish basic information technologies in the fields of application: in administrative management, economics, industry, science, education, printing, social sphere. The content of the technology is divided into: telecommunication with asynchronous data transfer, CASE-technologies, distributed database technologies and knowledge with remote access, multimedia technologies, geoinformation technologies, high-performance data processing technologies, information security technologies, virtual reality technologies, etc. An urgent task is the introduction of these technologies in education. This will contribute to the formation of a new information culture.
On the whole, the volume of the world information technology market annually increases by 6%. It is quite obvious that the era of the information society is coming.
Revolutionary transformations in the field of information technologies are positively perceived by society, but the effectiveness of their use slows the backlog of key technologies, in particular in the field of management. The process of informatization, on the one hand, is characterized by a sharp increase in information flows, facilitated by actively developing technical and software capabilities for extracting, transporting, storing, processing and presenting information. On the other hand, the reported amounts of information are mostly obsolete, do not reflect the current real state of the domain and, moreover, do not provide forecasting capabilities. The emerging contradictions between the new information and obsolete management technologies are shown in Fig. 2.1.
Troubleshooting is possible in the following ways:
• update of the information provided;
• compatibility of old and new technologies through the use of new economic and mathematical models, development and implementation of new standards for methods, models and tools;
• The systematization of information presented for decision-making, the use of new forms of representation, in particular visual (three-fourths of information about the world around us -
Fig. 2.1. Contradictions between information and management technologies
Visitors receive visually, and business information is mostly presented in text form).
The most important step in the way of convergence of information and management technologies is the active use of knowledge. The information life cycle (Figure 2.2) includes the following components: data, information, knowledge, experience.
The data is the foundation of the information pyramid, which is the basis for the production of information carried out by collecting, enriching and transmitting data. The transition from information to knowledge occurs on the basis of information processing and the use of artificial intelligence. Knowledge is one of the natural ways of reducing huge information flows. In this regard, the most important task is the development of the knowledge management process, including their extraction from the accumulated experience and their correct application to solve specific problems. Modern information systems are complex -
Fig. 2.2. Life cycle information
Integrated integrated complexes, which are a set of mechanisms, methods and algorithms aimed at supporting the life cycle of information.
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