State and development tendencies of modern processors - Informatics

State and development trends of modern processors

In modern computers, mainly processors are used by two companies - Intel (the market share is more than 80%) and AMD (about 19%). The share of other companies is less than 1%.

At the present day, the core of Intel's products are five main families - Pentium (Dual-Core), Celeron (Dual-Core), Core i3, Core i5 and Core i7. The first three are aimed at budgetary home and office solutions, the latter two are at the heart of high-performance systems.

AMD offers processors series Athlon II, Phenom II, A-Series and FX-Series.

The main characteristics of modern processors are the number of cores, the type of connector and the clock frequency.

Most modern processors are multi-core. This means that in a single chip, in fact, there are several processors at once. The most common are dual- and quad-core chips, processors with three, six and eight cores are somewhat less common.

Any processor is installed in the motherboard, on which there is a special socket (socket) for this, or in another way - a socket. Processors of different manufacturers, series and generations are installed in different types of connectors. Now for desktop computers such seven-four for Intel chips and three for AMD.

The clock frequency is a characteristic that determines the processor's performance, measured in megahertz (MHz) or gigahertz (GHz) and showing the number of operations that it can do per second.

In Table. 5.4 shows the specified characteristics for modern processor families.

Table 5.4

Family

Number

kernels

Connector Type

Clock

frequency,

GHz

Intel

Core 2

2.4

LGA 775

1.86-3.5

Celeron

(Dual-Core)

1.2

LG A 775,1156,1155

1.6-2.5

Pentium

(Dual-Core)

2

LGA 775,1156,1155

2.6-3

Core i3

2

LGA 1156, 1155

2.93-3.33

Core i5

2.4

LGA 1156,1155

2.67-3.6

Core 17

2, 4.6

LGA 1366, 1156, 1155, 2011

2.66-3.6

AMD

Sempron

1

Socket AM2 +, AM3

2.6-2.8

Athlon II

2, 3, 4

Socket AM3, FM1

2.6-3.4

Phenom II

2, 4, 6

Socket AM2 +, AM3

2.5-3.7

A-series

2, 3, 4

Socket FM1

2.1-3

FX-series

4, 6, 8

Socket AM3 +

3.3-4.2

Typical features of modern microprocessors:

• a wide range of used processor technologies: high-speed processing of operands with fixed and floating points, batch processing of data, etc.

• complex circuit design solutions using tens of millions of transistors (about 2 • 106 pieces only for processor logic);

• High-precision and perfect manufacturing technology for microcircuits (with norms less than 0.1 μm, with a large number of metallization layers).

One possible way to improve the performance of processors with equal technological capabilities of manufacturers is to use original architectures. There are two main directions for the development of the architecture of modern UE [18]:

• The direction that is based on the use of a high clock frequency (with relatively simple circuit design and processor structure) and called Speed ​​Daemon (fast demon);

• Direction (Brainiac), based on the complication of the logic of data processing planning and the internal structure of the processor (at a relatively low clock rate).

Within each of these directions, various architectural techniques are used to improve the performance of processors.

The efforts of developers of universal microprocessors are aimed at improving their performance (performance, functionality, cost, etc.). Because of the inconsistency of the requirements, it is impossible to obtain optimal values ​​of all the indicators for any processor, therefore, when making each specific type of microprocessor, compromise solutions are made. Let's consider their essence at increase of clock frequency, capacity (and volume) of a subsystem of memory, quantity of in parallel functioning executive modules.

The maximum clock frequency is determined by the speed of the operations performed by the processor, which depends on the size of the elements (transistors) and the length of the connections between them, therefore, to increase the clock frequency:

• Reduce the size of transistors or design standards of the technological process. At present, manufacturers of microprocessors switched to design standards of 0.18 μm or less. Reducing the size of transistors is accompanied by a decrease in the supply voltage from 5 to 2.5-3 V and below, as well as the release of thermal energy;

• reduce the length of the internal interconnects of the processor, which is achieved by a more dense arrangement of the functional blocks of the crystal (increasing the number of layers of metallization, localization of the interacting elements of the microprocessor);

• Use more advanced chip manufacturing technology. Bipolar and CMOS technology at high frequencies have roughly the same heat dissipation, but CMOS circuits are more technological, which determined their predominance in microprocessors.

Increasing the bandwidth of the memory subsystem. The memory subsystem supplies the processor with commands and data, loading it with work. The performance of the processor depends significantly on the bandwidth of the memory subsystem. Increasing the throughput of the subsystem is achieved:

• the introduction of cache memory (with the appropriate structure and organization). The most common solution consists in placing on the chip separate cache-memory of the first level for data and commands with the possible creation of an extra-crystal level 2 cache memory. In this case, the intra-crystal cache operates at the CPU clock speed, and the access time to it is two cycles;

• Improving the bus interface:

- technical improvements leading to increased bus speed and/or bus speed;

- the introduction of two independent buses (processor - cache, cache - main memory), eliminating conflicts.

Increasing the degree of internal parallelism is achieved by improving the superscalar architecture in each subsequent generation of microprocessors: the number of functional executive devices increases; the number of conveyor stages is reduced; decreases the duration of each stage, the functionality is expanded (MMX- and SSE-technologies, renaming of registers and prediction of transitions, etc.).

thematic pictures

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