STATE POLICY IN THE FIELD OF INFORMATICS
As a result of studying the chapter, the student must:
• concept and content of state policy in the field of informatics;
be able to
• use methods to determine the main directions and prospects for the development of the state information policy;
• skills of determining the main provisions of the state information policy.
The concept and essence of state policy in the information sphere
Understanding the nature of state policy in the information sphere of human activity allows us to identify the qualitative features of this independent and very important phenomenon of the social and political life of society, to determine some regularities in the content and form of this policy.
In the scientific literature, the term "state policy in the field of computer science" in its scientific understanding is not widespread. This can be explained, if only because the concept of "informatics", as we have already mentioned, is a field of knowledge about the nature of information, as well as the methods and means for its processing and use. For the state policy, it is not so much the field of knowledge that matters, as a part of the sphere of practical human activity connected with information. Relatively separate and independent activity of the state in this sphere is usually defined as state information policy, although the term (word) chosen by science, as we know, does not always reflect the essence of those phenomena and processes , which he is called upon to express.
The term public information policy we apply it just as a definition of a new area of state activity in the 21st century. Given this circumstance, it is necessary to consider it not only as a working term, but also at the level of a concept that unites large institutions of information knowledge in the field of state activity. In any case, for lawyers with professional knowledge of state development, the term "state information policy" is most acceptable for understanding the essence of organized information activity. Moreover, the acceleration of the process of informatization of state bodies, as the subject basis of legal regulation, is increasingly becoming the reality of jurisprudence as a science and the legal system as a whole.
In order to determine the nature and essence of the state information policy, it is necessary to consider some key features of this concept: policy, information policy, state information policy.
The concept of policy is one of the most difficult in political science. It is no accident that for the last two and a half thousand years the philosophers who tried to comprehend the essence of state governance, state power as such (Heraclitus of Ephesus, Confucius, Democritus, Plato, Aristotle, etc.) could not arrive at a single understanding of this concept.
It is believed that this term was first introduced into use by Aristotle, who investigated the functions and structure of the state of his time. He labeled with the word polity such a state in which the board is exercised by the majority for general benefit (23, 112). In the next hundred years, the interpretation of the concept "policy" has gradually undergone significant changes. Thus, Max Weber believed that politics is "the desire to participate in power or to influence the distribution of power, whether between states, be it inside the state, between groups of people that it concludes in itself" (24, 645). PA Holbach defined it as "the art of controlling people, the art of forcing them to promote the preservation and welfare of society"; (25, 380), K. Manheim - as "conflict, which increasingly becomes a struggle for life and death" (26, 7), L. Strauss defined politics as the organization, ordering and shaping of society in such a way as to harmonize it with the goals (27, 35), and G. Morgenthau as a struggle for influence (28, 11). R. Aron, who devoted considerable time to the study of politics, noted that, on the one hand, this is a concept, a program of actions, and on the other hand, the actions of one person, a group of people, the government in dealing with a specific social problem. The essence of politics, in his opinion, lies in the way of exercising power and in choosing rulers (29, 54).
According to modern political scientists, recently a lot of different meanings have been assigned to this term: the sphere of activity, the line of behavior and actions, the method of regulation, the nature of human relations, and so on. (30, 32).
In political science, the term policy did not receive an unambiguous definition. It is disclosed as "the activities of state bodies, political parties, social movements, organizations and their leaders in the sphere of relations between large social groups, nations and states, aimed at mobilizing their efforts with the goal of consolidating political power or gaining it by specific methods" (31, 566), or as a "set of relations formed as a result of the purposeful interaction of groups about the conquest, retention and use of state power in order to realize their socially significant interests" (30, 53).
Modern political science considers as participants in political life a significant number of subjects of social life: influential social groups, political organizations, individual citizens. The object of the policy of each of the participants is the relationship associated with the achievement of socially significant goals, and the subject - methods and methods of activity on the solution of political problems arising in connection with these goals. These goals and objectives can be to intensify the socio-economic and political development of society, to counteract the negative manifestations of economic crises, to eliminate such negative phenomena of public life as drunkenness, drug addiction, spiritual degradation of the population, or corruption in ensuring the security of society and the state under threat external aggression or the commission of terrorist acts, etc. In all cases, political goals and interests have a pronounced social orientation.
In this interpretation, politics has a dualism, and with this study, we can distinguish two main dimensions - social and subjective.
The public dimension of politics focuses primarily on its role in stimulating social development, solving problems and the contradictions of this development. In connection with the significant social importance of the problems raised by the subjects of politics, their struggle attracts the socially active forces of society to participate in the formation and upholding of their ideas about the public good, and also forces the subject with public power to constantly prove to society the effectiveness of his activity in the use of public resources power to achieve the public good. In the absence of this mechanism, politics as a phenomenon of social life degenerates into violence (coercion). In this sense, we can say that without a public struggle there is no politics.
The essence of the policy in the public dimension is to identify the priorities of social development on the basis of the competition of political actors for attracting the resources of public authorities to resolve the most acute contradictions in public life.
The subject dimension of the policy is emphasized on the process by which the specific subject of politics achieves the goals set by him and satisfies his political interests. From this side, politics is a special field of activity of the subject of politics, connected with the public struggle for the acquisition (in terms of competition and/or cooperation with other subjects of politics) of public authority resources (financial, spiritual, personnel, material, technical, social, information); as well as for using these resources to implement the views of the subject of the public goods policy.The essence of the policy in the subject dimension is the achievement and preservation by the subject of politics (in competition with political opponents and in cooperation with political allies) of the advantages in having public power and in using this power to achieve the political goals of this subject.
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