Static And Active Cmos Cascode Voltage Change Reasoning Circuits Computer Knowledge Essay

This paper presents a dual rail logic network founded static and dynamic CMOS cascode voltage turn logic (CVSL) circuits for enhancing the useful efficiency and low ability consumption. The logic design strategic is achieved in CVSL by cascading differential pairs of FET devices can handle control Boolean functions up to (2N-1) source variables within a single circuit hold off. Potentially CVSL is doubly thick as primitive NAND/NOR logic, and is compatible with existing design automation tools and minimizing the device/process complexity burden for CVSL designs. Significant performance and density improvements with simultaneous decrease in power utilization have been investigated using cadence-90 nm technology. The power requirements for the static and energetic cascode voltage switch logic circuits are compared

Index Conditions- cascode voltage move logic (CVSL), Dual rail logic, CMOS VLSI circuit, cadence tools


In recent years, almost all of the digital systems are static complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor (CMOS) because of the robust design aspect which can apply reliable circuits with excellent sound margin. However, the demand for high-performance digital systems requires continually faster CMOS circuit swiftness. Dynamic circuits are proven to have better circuit performance. But alas, these powerful design styles have problems with charge posting, low sound margin, complexity of design, and difficulty in tests. Recently, several analysts have attempted to use pass-gate logic style to understand static and high performance designs in different digital systems [1-2]. Pass-gate logics gain their quickness over the traditional static CMOS design because of their high logic functionality and reduction in the amount of pFET transistors. However, the degradation of pull-up performance for the pass-gate design in the long circuit string is the major obstacle for most designers to make use of. Lately, CMOS circuit design strategy established cascode voltage transition logic (CVSL) is proposed with numerous advantages over the traditional static CMOS [3]. The domino CMOS, NORA and pseudo-NMOS strategy is merely effective in non-complementary logic circuits and it cannot apply right to complementary logic functions. But, CVSL circuits can be employed to complementary reasoning young families. Potential advantages include reduced circuit delay, higher layout thickness, lower power ingestion and extended logic flexibility [4].

CVSL have been used to execute high-performance arithmetic circuits such as fast multiplications, ROM, Memory as well as pipelined DSP circuits. CVSL is very ideal for asynchronous designs when reasoning works at that time only the clocks are working; left over time is off. This reduces power consumption, especially for large and complicated circuits [5]. Dual rail logic network families are becoming increasingly very important to advanced technologies as a result of very small amount of demand required to keep a logic talk about. The cascode-voltage-switch reasoning gates are examined for improved the practical efficiency using 90 nm and 65 nm technology CMOS steps [6].

This paper describes dual rail logic network centered static and dynamic CMOS cascode voltage change reasoning (CVSL) circuits for improving the useful efficiency and vitality lowering. Significant performance and density advancements with simultaneous decrease in power ingestion have been investigated using cadence. The power requirements for the static and strong are CVSL compared.

design of CMOS CVSL circuit

Cascode voltage swap logic is a dual-rail reasoning family. The dual-rail logic established differential CVSL gates are provides the potential of having high fan-in which contributes to a reduction in logic depth, broadband, and the capability of generating completion alerts for asynchronous operations.

A) Dual rail Logic concept:

The dual rail reasoning structure is consists of two-pFET are cross-coupled to form a straightforward latch that provides complementary outputs and; the latch is influenced by an nFET network that may be viewed as two complementary moving over functions. The dual rail logic circuits are more complex than single rail logic circuit, but the dual rail circuit can be faster than sole rail circuit [6].


0 to1 swing


(a) Moving over waveform for solitary rail logic


0 to1 swing


(a) Turning waveform for dual rail logic

Fig 1 Turning action for solo and dual rail network

The slew rate is merely the pace of change of the outcome voltage with time. A big slew rate indicates a fast transitioning speed. In case of single rail circuit is made result, but dual rail reasoning circuit, both and are generate as productivity of the gates that is shown in Fig 1. The logic variable is taken up to be the difference signalthat effective of slew rate is defines as

This illustrate that dual rail circuit intrinsically displays faster switching swiftness than one rail network. In useful the dual rail reasoning has some problems; increased circuit complexity, increased interconnects required in the layout and timing issues become critical. These problems have been looked into in this static and active differential cascode voltage turn logic circuits.

B) Static CVSL:

Static differential cascode switch logic circuits usually contain a push-pull fill by pFET and a pair of interrelated (requiring both true and supplement alerts) binary decision trees and shrubs by nFET. The Differential CVSL tree is properly designed into two ways, in a way that:

(1) When the type vector is the real of the moving over function, that node is disconnected from earth and node is linked to earth by a unique conducting way through the tree.

(2) Once the source vector is wrong of, the opposite holds.

The logic trees may be further reduced from the entire differential form using logic minimization algorithms. This version, which might be termed a static CVSL gate, is lower than a standard complementary gate employing a p-tree and n-tree. This because turning action, the p pull-ups have to deal with the n pull-down trees and shrubs.


pFET Latch



nFET Reasoning Array

Fig 3 Static CMOS CVSL gate circuit

A design process of differential CVSL circuits using the pictorial characteristics of the Karnaugh map is suggested. A CMOS cell made with this process is compared with the matching gate logic design. A CVSL circuit of the Boolean function is distributed by that is shown in Fig 2. Note that only 12 transistors are required for this differential CVSL circuit design, two p-transistors and ten n-transistors instead of 10 p-transistors and 10 n-transistors utilizing a NAND-NAND construction or typical gate logic design. The transistor pFET latching circuit is contains two stable areas. The conductions of the source-gate voltage on the devices receive as

The habit of the latches is that which is andare voltage matches in this circuit, so you are high while other is low. The latching is induced by nFET transitioning network, which biases pFET1 into conduction from that time

With pFET1 executing, goes up to, which drives pFET2 into cutoff from that time

This represents one stable talk about of the latch. The voltage is pulled to, gives and biases pFET2 into conduction and pFET1 into cutoff. From this principle, there is no direct journey for current movement from to surface for either situation, so that only leakage currents can be found.

C) Active CVSL:

The static CVSL reasoning gate can be transformed into active circuit by rewiring the pFET latch to the clock-driven layout, shown in Fig 3. This eliminates the reviews loop and changes the two-pFET into precharge devices that are controlled by the clock. When the worthiness of clock is 'zero', drives both pFET into conduction method that end result is precharging of the productivity nodes. In order to avoid DC-current flow in this event, an analysis nFET is manipulated by the clock, so that it is OFF through the precharge time.



Combinational network




Clock (precharge)



Fig 3 Basic composition of a active CVSL gate circuit

The precharge clock is 'zero' at event, which allows the voltages across both and to precharge to value of

When the clock change to the value is 'one', the circuit is motivated into the analysis stage. nFET is ON and the type signals are valid. For the situation true signals swap is open which is placed high while complementary swap is shut and discharges to;

The productivity voltages are in the beginning complementary. However, the kept result voltage is subject to the usual dynamic problems of charge sharing and demand leakage, which reduces its value in time. As with all dynamic reasoning circuits, thus giving rise to a minimum clock regularity. The pFET demand is manipulated by the result states and. This dynamic cascade switch reasoning circuit allows with small aspect proportion for charge payment without extreme current streaming onto the node.

Simulation result and analysis

The performance of the static and energetic cascode voltage switch reasoning circuits designed and assessed through cadence-gpdk90 nm technology.

The static CMOS cell designed CVSL circuit of the Boolean function is given by. The differential input impulses A, B, C, D, and E and also complementary source signals are put on the pull-down (nFET network) network of the circuit. The transient response voltage is set as 1 V with 0. 1 ns rise/fall time. The cross-coupled latch is provides complementary outputs that is certainly shown in Fig 4







Fig 4 Simulation waveforms for static CVSL circuit







Fig 5 Simulation waveforms for strong CVSL circuit

The vibrant CMOS cell designed CVSL circuit of the Boolean function is given byas a four XOR gate implementation. This is just two-domino gates working on true and supplement inputs with a reduced reasoning tree. The transient response voltage is defined as 1 V with 0. 1 ns grow/fall time. The cross-coupled latch is provides complementary outputs which is shown in Fig 5

The static and powerful CVSL circuits power consumption is calculated and given in desk 1

Table 1 Static and energetic CVSL Ability consumption

CMOS Logic

Power consumption

Static CVSL

166 uW

Dynamic CVSL

224 uW


This newspaper implements a dual rail reasoning circuit design technique for CMOS differential cascade voltage move circuits. This CVSL gates helps that enhancing the practical efficiency and low vitality usage. The static and energetic CMOS differential CVSL circuits have been investigated using cadence-gpdk90 nm technology.

Also We Can Offer!

Other services that we offer

If you don’t see the necessary subject, paper type, or topic in our list of available services and examples, don’t worry! We have a number of other academic disciplines to suit the needs of anyone who visits this website looking for help.

How to ...

We made your life easier with putting together a big number of articles and guidelines on how to plan and write different types of assignments (Essay, Research Paper, Dissertation etc)