# Structuring methods - System theory and system analysis

## Structuring methods

Structural representations of all kinds allow us to divide a complex problem with great uncertainty into smaller ones that are better suited to research. This in itself can be considered as a certain method of investigation, sometimes called the system-structural one. Types of structures obtained by dismembering the system in time (network structures) or in space (hierarchical structures of different kinds, matrix structures) were considered in Ch. 1 (see Figure 1.10). Structuring methods are the basis of any method of system analysis, any complex algorithm for organizing design or making management decisions.

In a special group of structuring methods, you can select methods such as the target tree & quot ;.

Methods of the target tree type. The idea of ​​the & lt; target tree method first proposed U. Churchman (W. Churchman ) in connection with decision-making problems in industry [94]. The term tree implies the use of a hierarchical structure obtained by dividing a common goal into subgoals, and these, in turn, into more detailed components, which in specific applications are called sub-goals of lower levels, directions, problems, and starting with a certain level - functions.

Typically, the term goal tree It is used for hierarchical structures that are strictly tree-like in nature, but sometimes it is also used in the case of "weak" hierarchies. Therefore, the term B is more correct. M. Glushkov forecast graph, "but because of the history of the method, the original term" goal tree "is more common.

If you use the goal tree As a decision maker, the term "decision tree" is often used.

When applying the method to identify and refine the functions of the management system, the term goal tree and functions [9, 66]. When structuring the subjects of the research organization use the term problem tree, & quot ;, and when developing forecasts, the tree of development directions (development forecasting) or forecast graph.

Target Tree Method is oriented toward obtaining a complete and relatively stable structure of goals, problems, directions, such a structure that for a certain period of time would change little with the inevitable changes occurring in any developing system. To achieve this, when constructing options for the structure, it is necessary to take into account the patterns of goal-making and use the principles and methods for the formation of hierarchical structures of goals and functions, which, due to their special significance for modeling system objects, are discussed in more detail in a separate chapter (see Chapter 5). >

STEP and SWOT analysis. This is a model for analyzing the factors of social (social), technological (technological), economic (economical), political (political) views of the strong (the strong) and the weak (the weak) parties in the enterprise or organization; to assess the opportunities (opportunities) and threats (threats) companies in a competitive environment.

In system theory, STEP- and SWOT-analysis corresponds to two stages of the system analysis methodology (see paragraph 2.4) - the stage of the formation of the structure of goals and functions (based on the separation of social, technological, economic and political components defined by the acronym "STEP" ) and the stage of assessing the components of this structure in terms of strengths, weaknesses, opportunities and threats (SWOT analysis).

Methods of portfolio analysis. Provide logical structuring and visibility of information about the problem, relative simplicity of presentation of results when using qualitative analysis criteria.

Based on the construction of two-dimensional matrices, one axis of which fixes the values ​​of internal factors (assessment of the competitiveness of organizational units), the girlfriend - external (assessment of the prospects for market development). With the help of these matrices, organizations can be compared against each other for a number of such criteria as the rate of sales; competitive position; stages of the life cycle, the number of types of products included in the licensed activities of the organization; the market share occupied by the products or services of the organization; the attractiveness of the market for the organization, and the like.

The most famous and universal is the Akoff matrix with the values ​​of the axes given in Table. 2.14.

Table 2.14

 Products mastered New Markets mastered Improvement of activities (market processing) Product Development New Market development Diversification

The next stage in the development of portfolio analysis was the work of Bruce Henderson, founder of Boston Consulting -

th group. The axes of the first BKG matrix were market growth/market share, the Porter model, taking into account the factors most significant for the competitive position of the enterprise.

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