Blue attention is the technology to make personal computers sense and understand human behavior and emotions and react in the correct ways. The blue eyesight technology is aimed at creating computational machines which have perceptual and sensory capacity like those of humans. It uses non-obtrusive sensing method, employing the most modern video cameras and microphones to identify the user's actions by using imparted sensory talents. The device can understand what a user wishes, where he is looking at, and even realize his physical or psychological states.
This paper outlines the system over view, design features besides hardware part. The idea of the technology is the machine recognizes through its various modules the basic emotions and thoughts evinced by the user. This paper brings about the features of this technology, the many methods of supplying the inputs to the system, design challenges and the growing trends. Application of the technology in areas like vehicle, monitoring system etc. is also handled.
THE TERM BLUE Vision:
BLUE in the term means Bluetooth, which permits reliable cellular communication.
EYE, because the eye movement allows us to secure a lot of interesting and important information.
creating interactive computer.
computer functions as spouse (and friend) to the user.
realizes his physical or emotional states.
gives computer human power.
provide technical opportinity for monitoring and tracking operator physiological conditions
Design smarter devices.
Create devices with emotional intelligence.
Create computational devices with perceptual capabilities.
BLUE Eyes TECHNOLOGY:
Visual attention monitoring
Operator's position detection
Wireless data acquisition using Bluetooth
Real time individual defined alarm triggering
Recorded data playback
Doesn't predict nor hinder operator's thoughts
Cannot force straight the operator to work
Blue eye system provides technical opportinity for monitoring and documenting the operator's basic physiological parameters. The main parameter is saccadic activity ( Saccade is an instant eye leap to a new location given by the conscious attention process), which enables the machine to keep an eye on the position of the operator's visual attention along with head acceleration, which accompanies large displacement of the visible axis (saccades larger than 15 degrees). Complex commercial environment can create a danger of revealing the operator to toxic substances, which make a difference his cardiac, circulatory and pulmonary systems. Thus, on the grounds of lethysmographic signal extracted from the forehead skin surface, the system computes pulse rate and bloodstream oxygenation. The blue eyesight system checks above parameters against unusual (e. g. a low level of blood vessels oxygenation or a high pulse rate) or undesired (e. g. a longer time of lowered visible attention) values and sets off user-defined alarms when necessary. Quite often in an emergency situation operators speak to themselves expressing their surprise or proclaiming verbally the condition.
Therefore, the operator's tone, physiological guidelines and an overall view of the operating room are documented. This helps to reconstruct the span of operators' work and data for long-term analysis. This system involves a mobile measuring device and a central analytical system. The mobile device is integrated with Bluetooth module providing wireless program between receptors worn by the operator and the central unit. ID cards assigned to each one of the operators and sufficient user profiles on the central device side provide necessary information personalization so differing people can use an individual mobile device.
It has a personal area network for linking all the operators and the supervising system. They have two major units
DAU (data acquisition product )
CSU (central system device )
DATA ACQUISITION Product:
The DAU contains the following components
ATMEL 8952 microcontroller
BLUE TOOTH Component - helps synchronous tone data transmission
PCM CODEC -used to transfer operator's tone of voice and central system audio feedback
UART -communication between bluetooth component and microcontroller (115200 bps)
MAX232 -level shifter
ALPHAUNUMERIC LCD display
ID Credit card interface
local device management (resetting, reading local BD_ADDR, investing in Inquiry/Site and Inquiry/Page scan settings, reading the list of locally reinforced features and preparing UART acceleration)
connection management (receiving and displaying Inquiry check results, creating ACL links, adding SCO cable connections, performing website link authorization procedure, mailing test data packets and disconnecting).
To test the possibilities and
performance of the remaining parts such as computer, camera and
database software, BlueCapture is established. The tool facilitates capturing video data from various resources (USB web-cam, industrial camera) and
storing the data in the MS SQL Server data source. Additionally, the application form performs sound recording. After filtering and eliminating insignificant fragments (i. e. silence) the audio data is stored in the data source. Finally, the program plays the recorded audiovisual stream. The program is used to measure database system performance and optimize some of the SQL queries (e. g. replacing of correlated SQL inquiries with cursor procedures).
Also a straightforward tool for recording Jazz
Multisensor measurements is established. The program reads the data using a parallel port and writes it to a file. To program the operator's personal ID greeting card we use a typical parallel slot, as the EPROMs and the dock are both TTL-compliant. A simple dialog-based application helps to accomplish the task.
The data acquisition unit has the pursuing features.
Runs on batteries - low vitality consumption
Easy to utilize - does not disturb the operator working
ID cards for operator authorization
Voice transmitting using hardware PCM codec
CENTRAL SYSTEM UNIT:
The CSU involves the next components.
CONNECTION MODULE - main process to execute low-level blue teeth communication
DATA ANALYSIS MODULE - works the research of the natural sensor data to be able to obtain information about operator's physiological condition
DATA LOGGER MODULE - provides support for saving the watched data.
VISULAIZATION MODULE - provides user interface for the supervisors
The central system product has the pursuing features.
The procedure for making emotional pcs with sensing capabilities is known as affective computing.
Giving sensing abilities
Detecting individual emotions
ASPECTS OF AFFECTIVE COMPUTING
giving the computer the ability to detect feelings and
giving the computer the capability to express feelings.
Not only are feelings crucial for
rational decision making, but emotion detection is an important step to an adaptive computer system. An adaptive, smart computer system has been travelling efforts to identify a person's emotional state. A significant element of incorporating sentiment into computing is made for productivity for your personal computer user. By corresponding a person's mental state and the framework of the portrayed emotion, on the time period the individuals personality is being exhibited. Therefore, giving the computer a longitudinal understanding of the emotional express of its user, the computer could modify an operating style which meets using its user's personality. The result of this collaboration could increase efficiency for an individual.
Heart pulse rate
Eye-brows and mouth area lines primarily
As a pointing device
Also to determine the emotion
1. AFFECT Diagnosis:
One way of increasing information from a individual non-intrusively is by video. Camcorders have been used to discover a person's psychological state.
The basic stop diagram of the facial expression diagnosis is shown below.
THEORY ON Cosmetic EXPRESSION
Based on the facial appearance work, there is a correlation between someone's emotional point out and someone's physiological measurements. Paul Ekman, a scientist performed an experiment which involved individuals mounted on devices to record certain measurements including pulse, galvanic pores and skin response (GSR), heat range, somatic activity and blood circulation pressure. He then recorded the measurements as the participants were instructed to mimic cosmetic expressions which corresponded
to the six basic thoughts. He identified the six basic emotions as anger, dread, sadness, disgust, joy and surprise. Thus out of this test it was driven how physiological procedures could be utilized to tell apart various emotional claims.
The measures used were GSR, heart rate, skin temperature and standard somatic activity (GSA). These data were then at the mercy of two analyses. For the first analysis, a multidimensional scaling(MDS) process was used to determine the dimensionality of the data.
Thus it can be figured "most of the information is extracted from the position of the eye-brows. "
Geometric facial data extraction
Basic emotion-specified cosmetic expression
1 2 3 4 5 6
2. MAGIC POINTING:
Magic Pointing stands for
MANUAL AND GAZE Type CASCADED (MAGIC) POINTING.
This work explores a new direction in utilizing eyes gaze for computer source. Gaze tracking is definitely considered as an alternative solution or probably superior pointing way for computer input. It is believed that lots of fundamental limitations exist with traditional gaze pointing. Specifically, it is unnatural to overload a perceptual channel such as eyesight with a engine control job. Therefore an alternative approach of dubbed MAGIC (Manual And Gaze Type Cascaded) pointing is suggested. With this approach, pointing appears to the user to be always a manual job, used for fine manipulation and selection. However, a huge part of the cursor activity is eradicated by warping the cursor to the attention gaze area, which
encompasses the mark.
Two specific MAGIC directing techniques are
Conservative powerful pointing and
Liberal magic pointing.
The pros and cons of the two techniques are talked about in light of both performance data and subjective records.
The MAGIC pointing program needs data from both manual suggestions device (of any type, such as a mouse) and the eye tracking system running either on the same machine or on another machine connected via serial dock. Fresh data from an vision tracker can't be immediately used for gaze-based connections, due to noises from image control, eye activity jitters, and samples taken during saccade (ballistic vision movement) intervals. Therefore filters are employed.
The goal of filter design generally speaking is to make the best compromise between preserving signal bandwidth and eradicating unwanted noise. Regarding eye tracking, eye information highly relevant to interaction lies in the fixations. The key is to choose fixation points with minimal delay.
Samples collected during a saccade are unwanted and should be avoided. In making the algorithm for picking tips of fixation, the
tracking system speed (30 Hz) is known as, and that the MAGIC pointing techniques utilize gaze information only once for every new aim for, probably soon after a saccade. The filtering algorithm was designed to select a fixation with bare minimum delay by means of selecting two adjacent details over two samples.
Advantages of special pointing:
Reduction of manual stress and fatigue, since the mix display long-distance cursor motion is eradicated from manual control.
Practical exactness level. Compared to traditional natural gaze pointing whose reliability is pointing fundamentally tied to the nature of eye movement, the MAGIC pointing techniques allow hand complete the task, so they can be as accurate as any other manual type techniques.
. A far more natural mental model for an individual. The user does not have to be aware of the role of the eye gaze. To an individual, pointing continues to be a manual activity, with a cursor quickly appearing where it requires to be.
Speed. Because the dependence on large magnitude pointing businesses is significantly less than with clean manual cursor control, it is possible that MAGIC pointing will be faster than 100 % pure manual pointing.
Improved subjective acceleration and ease-of-use. Since the manual pointing amplitude is smaller, the user may perceive the MAGIC pointing system to use faster and much more pleasantly than clean manual control, even if it operates at the same rate or more slowly.
Problems related to special pointing:
1. Together with the more liberal MAGIC directing technique, the cursor warping can be overactive at times, because the cursor goes to the new gaze location whenever the eye gaze moves more than a collection distance (e. g. , 120 pixels) away from the cursor. This may be particularly distracting when an individual is trying to read. It is possible to introduce additional constraint based on the context. For instance, when the user's eyes seems to follow a text reading pattern, MAGIC pointing can be automatically suppressed.
2. Along with the more conventional MAGIC pointing approach, the doubt of the precise location of which the cursor might seem may force the user, especially a newbie, to adopt a troublesome strategy: have a touch (use the manual type device to switch on the cursor), hold out (for the cursor to appear), and move (the cursor to the target manually). Such a technique may prolong the mark acquisition time. The user may need to learn a novel hand-eye coordination design to be useful with this system. Gaze position reported by eyesight tracker Eye tracking boundary with 95% self-assurance True target will be within the circle with 95% possibility The cursor is warped to the boundary of the gaze area, along the original actuation vector Past cursor position, definately not target Primary manual actuation vector
3. With 100 % pure manual pointing techniques, the user, knowing the current cursor location, could conceivably perform his electric motor works in parallel to visible search. Electric motor action may start as soon as the user's gaze settles over a focus on. With MAGIC directing techniques, the electric motor action computation (decision) cannot start until the cursor appears. This may negate the time conserving gained from the MAGIC pointing technique's reduced amount of movement amplitude. Plainly, experimental (implementation and empirical) work is needed to validate, refine, or invent solution MAGIC pointing techniques.
SUITOR stands for "Simple INTERFACE Tracker". Computers would have been a lot more powerful, had they gained perceptual and sensory abilities of the living beings on the earth. What must be developed can be an intimate relationship between the computer and the humans. And the easy Individual Interest Tracker (SUITOR) is a cutting edge approach in this route. By watching the Webpage a netizen is surfing around, the SUITOR can help by fetching more information at his
to desktop. Simply by noticing where the
user's eyes give attention to the computer screen, the SUITOR can be more precise
in identifying his topic appealing. It can even deliver relevant information
to a handheld device. The success is based on how much the suitor can be close the user. A cue to exploit nonverbal cues to create more effective individual interfaces c is gaze-the way when a person is looking. A new technique for monitoring a person's eyes has been created which gaze-tracking technology has been designed into two prototypes. One, called SUITOR (Simple User Interest Tracker), fills a scrolling ticker on the screen with information related to the user's current task. SUITOR knows where the end user is looking, what applications he/she is jogging, and what Web pages the user may be surfing.
For example, If the Website about IBM, has been read for example and the machine presents the latest stock price or business news stories that can affect IBM. If the headline off the ticker is read, it pops up the story in a web browser window. If the account is also read then, it offers related stories to the ticker. That's the whole notion of an attentive system-one that attends from what you do, typing, reading, so that it can attend to your information needs. "
EMOTION Mouse button:
One goal of individual computer conversation (HCI) is to make an adaptive, smart computer system. A non-invasive supply of information about a person is through touch. People use their personal computers to acquire, store and manipulate data using their computer. To be able to start creating smart computer systems, the computer must start gaining information about an individual. The proposed way for gaining consumer information through touch is via a computer type device, the mouse. From the physiological data obtained from an individual, an emotional express may be determined which would then be related to the task the user happens to be doing using the pc. Over a period of time, a user model will be built-in order to gain a feeling of the user's personality. The scope of the job is to really have the computer adapt to the user in order to create an improved working environment where the end user is more fruitful.
. One apparent spot to put detectors is on the mouse. Through observing normal computer consumption (creating and editing documents and surfing the net), people spend roughly 1/3 of their total computer time touching their type device. Due to the incredible timeframe spent touching an input device, the likelihood of detecting feeling through touch can be explored.
Mouse is inserted with sensors that can sense the physiological capabilities like
Touching style etc.
The computer determines the user's psychological says from these inputs.
BLUE Eyesight - EMOTIONAL MOUSE
sensors in the mouse, sense the physiological qualities which can be correlated to emotions using relationship model
-by simply touching the mouse, the computer can determine someone's emotional status.
BLUE EYE allowed Tv - could become energetic when an individual makes an eyesight contact integrated.
5. SPEECH RECOGNITION:
It is important to consider the surroundings where the speech popularity system must work. The grammar utilized by the speaker, sound level, sound type, position of the microphone, and rate and manner of the user's conversation are some factors which could affect the grade of speech recognition. Man-made intelligence makes place where an automated call-handling system can be used without employing any mobile phone operator.
Artificial cleverness (AI) involves two basic ideas. First, it includes studying the thought processes of humans. Second, it deals with representing those operations via machines (like computers, robots, etc).
AI is tendencies of the machine, which, if performed by a human being, would be called clever. It makes machines smarter and more useful, and is less
Expensive than natural brains. Natural language control (NLP)
refers to manufactured intelligence methods of communicating with some type of computer in an all natural language like English. The main target of the NLP program is to comprehend source and initiate action. The source words are scanned and compared to internally stored known words. Identification of an integral word triggers some action to be studied. In this manner, one can talk to the computer in one's vocabulary. No special instructions or computer language are required. There is no need to enter in programs in a particular vocabulary for creating software.
The user speaks to the computer by using a microphone, which, in used; a straightforward system may contain a minimum of three filters. The more the amount of filters used, the higher the likelihood of accurate recognition. Presently, turned capacitor digital filter systems are used because
these can be custom-built in integrated circuit form. These are smaller and cheaper than productive filters using functional amplifiers. The filtration result is then given to the ADC to convert the analogue indication into digital expression. The
ADC samples the filter outputs often another. Each sample represents different amplitudes of the transmission. Equally spaced vertical lines stand for the amplitude of the music filter result at the moment of sampling. Each value is then converted to a binary quantity proportional to the amplitude of the sample. A central processor chip unit (CPU) control buttons the suggestions circuits that are fed by the ADCS. A large Ram memory (random access storage) stores all the digital principles in a buffer area.
The pictures symbolize the basic plans of the speech recognition process.
This digital information, representing the spoken word, is now seen by the CPU to process it further. The standard talk has a rate of recurrence selection of 200 Hz to 7 kHz. Realizing a mobile call is more challenging as they have bandwidth limitation of 300 Hz to3. 3 kHz. As discussed early, the spoken words are refined by the filtration systems and ADCs. The binary representation of each of these words becomes a template or standard, against that your future words are likened. These templates are stored in the storage. Once the storing process is completed, the system can go into its active function and is capable of determining spoken words. As each expression is spoken, it is changed into binary equal and stored in RAM. The computer then begins searching and compares the binary insight structure with the themes. t is to be observed that even if the same speaker talks the same wording, there are always slight
variations in amplitude or loudness of the transmission, pitch, occurrence difference, time space, etc. Due to this reason, you can find never a perfect match between your template and binary input word. The pattern matching process therefore uses statistical techniques and is designed to look for the best fit.
The worth of binary source words are subtracted from the matching principles in the themes. If both the values are same, the difference is zero and there is perfect match. If not, the subtraction produces some difference or mistake. Small the problem, the better is the match. Once the best match occurs, the word is recognized and shown on
the display or used in some other manner. The search process takes a considerable amount of their time, as the CPU has to make many evaluations before identification occurs. This necessitates use of very high-speed processors. A big Ram memory is also required as even though a spoken word may last only a few hundred milliseconds, however the same is translated into many thousands of digital words. It's important to notice that alignment of words and web templates are to be matched correctly in time, before computing the
similarity score. This technique, termed as vibrant time warping, recognizes that different speaker systems pronounce the same words at different speeds as well as elongate different parts of the same phrase. This is very important to the
APPLICATIONS OF Talk RECOGNITION
One of the key benefits of talk popularity system is so it lets user do other works simultaneously. An individual can concentrate on observation and manual functions, but still control the machinery by voice suggestions instructions. Another major application of speech control is in armed service operations. Voice control of weapons can be an example. With reliable speech acceptance equipment, pilots can give commands and information to the pcs by simply speaking to their microphones-they don't have to use their hands for this function. Another good example is a radiologist scanning hundreds of X-rays, ultrasonograms, CT scans and together dictating conclusions to a speech recognition system linked to term processors. The radiologist can focus his attention on the images somewhat than writing the written text. Voice recognition could also be used on personal computers for making flight and hotel reservations. A user requires only to point out his needs, to make reservation, cancel a booking, or make enquiries about program.
6. Attention TRACKER:
Eye tracker is a device which tracks the motion of eye. This system is much smaller sized and reliable. Available commercial systems, rely on a single source of light that is put either from the camera axis, or on-axis. Brightness from an off-axis source (or ambient illumination) creates a dark pupil image. If the source of light is placed on-axis with the camera optical axis, the camera can detect the light shown from the inside of the attention, and the image of the pupil shows up bright. This impact is often seen as the red-eye in flash photographs when the adobe flash is near to the camera zoom lens.
The Almaden system of attention monitoring uses two near infrared (IR) time multiplexed light resources, made up of two pieces of IR LED's, which were synchronized with the camera frame rate. One light source is put very close to the camera's optical axis and is also synchronized with the even structures. Odd casings are synchronized with the second light source, placed off axis. The two light resources are calibrated to provide around equivalent whole-scene brightness. Pupil diagnosis is realized by means of subtracting the dark pupil image from the smart pupil image. After thresholding the difference, the largest connected part is discovered as the pupil. This system significantly escalates the robustness and reliability of the attention tracking system.
The Almaden eyeball tracker is shown in the number.
The above picture an ON AXIS infrared illumination
The figure talks about the OFF AXIS infrared lighting.
A large stores have implemented security systems that record and interpret customer moves, using BlueEye software.
BlueEye software is practical of the actual video cameras see to answer key questions for vendors, including, How many shoppers dismissed a promotion? Just how many stopped? How long have they stay? Did their encounters register boredom or pleasure? How many reached for that and put it in their shopping carts? Blue Eyesight works by monitoring pupil, eyebrow and mouth movement. When monitoring pupils, the system runs on the camera and two infrared light options placed inside the product display. One light source is
aligned with the camera's concentrate; the other is slightly off axis. When the attention checks the camera-aligned light, the pupil appears glowing to the sensor, and the program registers the customer's attention. This is way it captures
the person's income and purchasing preferences. BlueEye is actively been incorporated in some of the primary shops.
2. Vehicle industry
Blue Eyesight can be employed in the automobile industry. By simply touching a pc input device like a mouse, the computer system was created to be able to determine someone's emotional state. For cars, maybe it's useful to help with critical decisions like: "I understand you want to get into the fast lane, but I'm scared I can't do this. You too annoyed right now" and therefore assist in driving a vehicle safely.
3. Video recording games
We could see its used in video games where, it might give individual issues to customers participating in video games. Typically targeting
commercial business. The integration of Children's playthings, technologies and pcs is allowing new play experience which were not commercially feasible until lately. The Intel Play QX3 Computer Microscope, the Me2Cam with Fun Good, and the Computer Sound Morpher are commercially available smart toy products developed by the Intel Smart Toy Lab in. One theme that is common across these PC-connected gadgets is that users interact with them using a combination of visible, audible and tactile source & end result modalities. The display will provide an overview of the relationship design of the products and present some unique troubles faced by designers and designers of such experience targeted at beginner computer users, specifically young children.
4. An alternate to keyboard
The familiar and useful result from things we discover. Quite a few favorite things' appearance connect their use; they show the change in their value though patina. As technologists we are actually poised to imagine a
world where processing objects talk to us in-situ; where we live. We use our looks, thoughts, and actions to give the computer the knowledge it needs to work with us. Keyboards and mice will not continue to dominate computer user interfaces. Keyboard source will be substituted in large strategy by systems that know very well what we wish and require less explicit communication. Sensors are increasing fidelity and ubiquity to track record presence and actions; detectors will notice whenever we enter a space, sit down, lie down,
Pump iron, etc. Pervasive infrastructure is recording it.
5. An improved future scenario
Current interfaces between computer systems and humans can present information vividly, but haven't any sense of whether that information is ever
Viewed or recognized. On the other hand, new real-time computer eyesight approaches for perceiving people we can create "Face-responsive Displays" and "Perceptive Environments", which can sense and respond to users that are enjoying them. Using stereo-vision techniques, we are able to detect, record, and identify users robustly and in real time. These details can make spoken terms interface better quality, by selecting the acoustic information from a visually-localized source. Conditions can become alert to how
many people can be found, what activity is happening, and for that reason what screen or messaging modalities are most appropriate to use in the current situation.
The results of our own research will allow the user interface between computers and individuals users to become more natural and intuitive.
6. Other applications
Blue eye allowed devices
POD-Technology found in cars.
PONG- A Robot.
SECURE PAD- AN ELECTRIC Badge
Generic control rooms
System can be applied atlanta divorce attorneys working environment requiring long term operator's attention like
Flight control centers
Operating theatres - anesthesiologists
The nineties observed quantum leaps program designing for better man machine relationships. The BLUE EYE technology ensures a convenient way of simplifying the life by giving more
delicate and user friendly facilities in processing devices. Soon, ordinary home devices- such as television, refrigerators, ovens may be able to do their jobs when we take a look at them and talk with them. Future applications of blue eyes technology are limitless. The gap between your electronic digital and Physical world is greatly reduced. The personal computers can be run using implicit orders rather than the explicit commands. Your day is not significantly when this technology will force its way
into your home hold, making you more sluggish.
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