In this previous section of the dissertation motivation behind the study is mentioned and the conclusion of the study is presented. The final outcome is offered by revisiting the study objectives occur first section of the dissertation and then, analysing the results obtained, in light of the targets. As vulnerabilities, exploits and security in information and communication technology is a very vast subject and delivering various type of cyber attacks and their corresponding security measures is beyond the range of this or any one research. So, the range of the research analysis, as conducted by the researcher, is also talked about in this section. The chapter ends with the discussion about the further range of the research that can be taken to enhance the work presented in this research dissertation.
7. 1 Research Aims Revisited
- To study the lasting development of ICT sector
- Analyze effect of penetration level on economy
- Dependency research of other sectors on ICT
- Growth examination of vulnerabilities in ICT sector
- Model to control vulnerabilities and ensure sustainability
This section discusses that how well these targets have been achieved in the study.
7. 1. 1 Ecological development of ICT
The lasting development of ICT has been described in chapter 1 as, ongoing and steady development of information and communication technology to meet up with the needs of the current as well as future generations. Lasting development has three facets as economic, sociable and environmental sustainability. In this particular research, only two areas of sustainability i. e. economic and public sustainability of ICT sector are examined. The financial sustainability of ICT means that the sector will continue steadily to add substantial economic value internationally in terms of GDP value addition and occupations for folks.
The interpersonal sustainability means, continuous use of ICT to enable human being development, improvement their living benchmarks, and eliminate public evils such as poverty, illiteracy, malnutrition etc. An efficient use of ICT can facilitate the development of the people of the united states by giving them essential information, education to take accurate decisions to allow growth.
7. 1. 2 Effect of penetration rate on economy
The most evident value addition that ICT has brought in previous three decades has been the positive economic impact that it is wearing the countries of the world. The counties which had embraced personal computers and internet in its inception period are all developed countries today.
In this research it's been proved beyond doubt that the economical development of a country is closely dependent on ICT. Ongoing and effective use of ICT by countries has empowered them to add huge economic value to the GDP. The correlation between the GDP and internet penetration rate around the world has been found to a perfect positive relationship, which means that a country with higher penetration rate would essentially have high per capita GDP.
High degree of positive correlation between the use of ICT and market of the united states has been set up in the study, so if the ICT sector maintains on growing at a continuous rate it'll generate more income and raise the living expectations for the people of the globe. Also after knowing this impact of ICT on overall economy the majority of the developing countries on the planet have started applying and encouraging use of ICT, and therefore the expansion in penetration rate of the internet in developing countries and parts of the planet have been found to be higher hen there developed counterparts.
7. 1. 3 Dependence of other areas on ICT
ICT sector has a significant talk about in GDP and job of an country but this is only a partial contribution of its total result. The actual influence of ICT is a lot greater as it brings value to all other areas which donate to the current economic climate of the united states. Hence ICT is adding value to overall economy in multiple ways.
In this research the have an impact on of ICT on other industries of the current economic climate such as banking and other financial institutions, retail, transportation and logistics, travel and leisure and health care sector has been researched. Only all these five sectors have been researched in this research but ICT has similar effect on all other service areas of the current economic climate. Based on the study in section 3 of the dissertation ICT has been found to the enabler for most of the product and process innovations in these other service sectors of the economy. A number of the ground breaking business models such as e-commerce and online reservations have been deployed in many organizations of the world and these contribution and motion of the traditional world to the virtual world will continue in future and thus lead to lasting development of ICT.
7. 1. 4 Progress rate of ICT vulnerabilities
The biggest hindrance to the lasting development of ICT is the progress in vulnerabilities, exploits and cyber disorders. When a customer is linked to the internet he also becomes susceptible to these cyber risks. These goodies if exploited with a cyber miscreant can lead to more financial loss to a person or organization then the recognized value addition of using ICT. This disposition of lack of trust is the key reason for lasting development of ICT not being on the expected lines and its potential is not being completely utilized.
To ensure its sustainable development the ICT sector has to constrain these constantly growing cyber dangers. In chapter 4 of the study the consistence expansion of vulnerabilities has been analyzed and it's been proved from a global perspective that vulnerabilities have been increasing at the compounded gross annual progress rate of around 30% annually.
7. 1. 5 Model to permit sustainable growth of ICT
In the final chapters of the study dissertation a particular example of security danger in cordless sensor networks into the future has been researched. The situation of wireless sensor network has been considered because it is the mostly implemented wireless ad-hoc network today, and is likely to be used extensively in all smart city and Internet of Things projects in future. With these jobs in focus the miscreants are likely to use the prevailing attacks in novel forms to attack those to disturb the functioning of the interconnected and autonomous sites.
Sybil attack, which is a serious threat to ad-hoc networks, has been chosen in this research study as it, not only compromises the performing of sensor network, but also allows and facilitate many other attacks in sensor systems. For instance Sybil identities once generated in the network can lead to Black hole attacks, blackmailing disorders, denial of service problems etc. So the motivation behind this research choice was that if this one harm can be controlled it would lead to decrease in other styles of attacks as well.
Before recommending a model to avoid Sybil disorders in cordless sensor networks, real life data was captured and analysed to determine the existence of these attack in real life. After sizeable Sybil attack signatures were recognized in the captured data a trust structured model for WSN has been advised in which a server agent or foundation station is entrusted with the responsibility of authorizing the wireless nodes before participating in the network functions. Using this entrance control system the Sybil nodes can be totally prevented in the network and so lead to more predictable and reliable delivery of data over the network. As mentioned in the last chapter the effectiveness of the suggested model has been defended using the simulation results of the existing and the proposed system.
7. 2 Range of research study
As the types of network and their corresponding vulnerabilities are numerous and can not be studied within a research. The Sybil episode which really is a particularly harmful strike in cellular sensor network has been analyzed and protection model for the same has been suggested. As talked about in prior section, cordless sensor networks were selected because they are regarded as future of ad-hoc sites and Sybil assault was selected due to its capability to aid additional problems in sensor networks. By no means gets the researcher wished to state that other styles of network and problems are not important, in fact as though today, other styles of wired and wireless networks are more often integrated and warrant appreciable research to allow ecological development of ICT, but WSN are going to be the continuing future of networks and will play a far more important role in times to come in sustainable development of ICT.
The opportunity of a global analysis is also sometimes constrained by the option of data for those parameters of study in the global situation. Within this research most of the info used has been global but in case of sectoral research the consistent extra data for your world had not been available so the data from European Union has been used to analyse the dependency of other service areas of the current economic climate on ICT and has been generalised in a worldwide scenario.
7. 3 Recommendation for Further Study
This study has a specific give attention to Sybil problems in WSN but there are many other type of attacks and networks that happen to be similarly important in sustainable development of ICT. This section of the chapter advises some further research subject areas in the region of sustainable ICT development generally and safety against Sybil and other episodes in other kind of networks.
7. 3. 1 Sybil attack in other Types of WANET
In this research Sybil attacks have been examined in framework of wireless sensor sites which is one group of cellular ad-hoc network but there are other types of WANET such as mobile ad-hoc network and vehicular ad-hoc network that happen to be also affected by Sybil disorders and a security model can be developed for protecting these types of systems. The model recommended in this research for WSN cannot be directly applied to the MANET or VANET as centralization is less feasible because of high flexibility rate and absence of central command word and control centre in form of platform stop in these networks.
In WSN the nodes may or may not be mobile and even though mobility will there be it is slow and infrequent, for example in a smart city garbage collection system, a bin would become a node, but it'll move only one time or twice during a day, in a radio sensor network enabled smart home all devices such as television set, refrigerator, washer and smart phone are connected however the relative movement is infrequent. In case of MANET and VANET the situation is completely different as vehicles will constantly move and same vehicles may never become neighbours again so developing a trust structured solution is not possible in such sites and some other model is required for safeguard.
7. 3. 2 Other episodes in WANET
In this research Sybil invasion has been analyzed but there are a great many other problems which also significantly compromise the efficiency of cordless ad-hoc networks. For instance denial of service attack can take various forms in various kind of sites and its own modus operandi and matching defences will vary in various types of networks. Other attacks which are directed at WANET and discussed in chapter 5 of this research can be studied and suggestive models can be suggested to guard the WANET from these problems.
Various routing disorders are particularly very frustrating in WANET as they adversely have an effect on the routing within an ad-hoc network and lead to packets damage. These routing episodes can be considered a further subject of research to permit ecological development of ICT.
7. 3. 3 New design paradigm for WANET
In computational and interconnection theory of pcs, security hasn't been of leading concern. All the effort of the software company is to make the software do the task it is supposed to do and do it as effectively as possible. In this particular performance focused approach security is often neglected. When such software is launched in market it holds many vulnerabilities that are exploited by the attackers to compromise the computational system and cause damage to the business or individuals.
In modern times, after knowing the disastrous capability of these output concentrated programming techniques now the software designers and builder are shifting to more security centric solutions of software development. Likewise, if security is inbuilt in the look of the systems, they will be more immune system to the attacks. So, this new design paradigm being utilized by software development industry can be applied network design as well.
7. 4 Summary
In the overview of the conclusion of the research it could be mentioned that the wireless ad-hoc network being the future of computer networks will be attacked consistently in future. The prevailing problems in new varieties and new zero day episodes will constantly be found out by the cyber attackers and it will never be easy for the system administrators to guard their system. The new defence mechanisms will have to be developed to safeguard our information structures and ensure the sustainable development of ICT.
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