Techniques based on philosophical concepts of the...

Techniques based on the philosophical concepts of the system

A technique based on the dual definition of a system. As was shown in Ch. 1, A. I. Uyomov, defining a system through the concepts thing & quot ;, property & quot ;, relation & quot ;, suggested a dual definition [83], in one of which the properties characterize the elements, and in the other, the characterize the relationships (1.1 e):

In the works B. D. Kosharsky (see references in [11,12]) it was shown that these definitions correspond to two ways of representing the control system:

procedural is the set of objects A, on which the predetermined relations R with fixed properties Q R ; at the same time, if the system-forming ratio is determined in time, then this representation corresponds to the structuring of the system according to the management cycle: planning, organization, regulation, accounting, etc. (the set of functions of the management cycle varies with the development of the economy and depends on the specific conditions);

factor is the set of objects A that has predetermined properties Q a with the relations R; fixed between them, then such components can be selected , as the main and auxiliary production, fixed and circulating funds, labor resources, material and technical support and other management objects in the enterprise (a set of them is also determined by specific conditions).

B. D. Kosharsky showed that each of these ways of representing the system separately gives an incomplete description of the management system, and in order to identify the system features of a particular enterprise, one way of describing it is necessary to supplement with another, dual to it, ie. that only the joint use of the procedural and factor representations of the system makes it possible to provide a concretization and completeness of the analysis of the goals and objectives of organizational management.

Note that this statement of completeness is valid only in the framework of the accepted concept of the system.

Such a requirement is realized in practice either by parallel formation of the dual variants of the structure (Figure 5.10) using a reciprocally inverse sequence of structuring features, or by forming and analyzing the matrix control cycle - object (Table 5.3), after evaluating which dual structures are formed and the best choice is made from them.

Fig. 5.10

Table 5.3

Management object (OS) is a production feature

Control loop (CU) is a time sign


Advanced Planning


current planning

operational control

accounting. Control. Analysis







Research (R & D)

Production of main products (OP)







Supporting Manufacturing (VP)



Transport (T)







Procurement (MTS)




Human Resources (Human Resources - K)







Sales of products (SbP)






Finance (F)







In Fig. 5.11 shows an example of variants of such reciprocal structures corresponding to the analysis of matrix components (see Table 5.3).

In this example, we used classifiers recommended in the ACS developer reference books to get the actual situation that occurred when developing a typical structure of a function

Fig. 5.11

National part (FC) of the automated control system, which for a number of years has been the basis for the development of the FC structures of many enterprises.

The resulting structures are analyzed.

The first structure (Figure 5.11, a) has degenerate branch and does not meet the requirements imposed on the structures of goals, discussed in Ch. 1. The second structure (Figure 5.11.6) is better from this point of view, but in it one branch (the first one related to the management of the main production) is "overloaded" compared with the rest. If we divide it, allocating technical production preparation (CCI), technical and economic planning (TEP) and operational management of basic production (OCOP) into separate sub-goals (subsystems), then the structure will satisfy the requirement of uniformity. This structure (Figure 5.11, c) and was put in the basis of the typical structure of the functional part of the ASIS. In the future, a subsystem of product quality management (QA) was added.

The methodology of Kosharsky-Uyomov has found wide application in various industries when structuring the goals and functions of enterprises in the process of developing the structure of the functional part of their automated control systems. In a number of cases, the approach taken as a basis for it turned out to be so natural that the names of the first authors were forgotten, the principle of dual representation was not mentioned, but the signs "management cycle" were used at once. and management object & quot ;.

The methodology is convenient for analyzing the purposes and functions of existing enterprises, for which you can conduct a survey of the existing control system and identify management objects. However, it does not have the means to identify new facilities, new activities and functions related to the development of the enterprise (the introduction of new technology, technology, etc.), which limits the application of the methodology for the reconstruction and design of new enterprises.

The methodology, based on the concept of a system that takes into account the environment and goal-setting. The method is based on the definition of the system B. N. Sagatovsky [66], which takes into account the concepts of the target Z, the environment SR and the time interval Δ T - the period of existence of the system affecting the process of goal formation (cm (1.2a)):

In work [66], the rationale for the methodology of the philosophical concept of the system and for the systematization of system models used to reveal it and determine characteristics is also given. A technique was developed and studied by a group of scientists from Tomsk universities F. I. Peregudov, VZ Yampolsky, L. V. Kochiev .

The main steps of the methodology correspond to the levels of structuring shown in Fig. 5.12.

Fig. 5.12

The methodology is presented mainly in terms and formulations of its authors, but with some additions proposed by them later.

Level 1. Formation of the global goal of the system.

The goal is either set by the parent organization or recreated based on an analysis of policy documents. The goal should be focused on the final product for which a system exists or is created.

The end product can be any result of social activity: material production, new scientific result, scientific information, etc.

Level 2. Decomposition based on the end product views (VKP).

It is carried out in those cases when the system produces different types of final product. In the presence of a large number of varieties of products, the classifier by this feature can be two-level.

The types of the final product depend on what the goal structure is built for. If we are talking about production, then the end product is the output, and if the structure of the goals is built for the management apparatus, then these are plans, decisions and other normative and methodological documents that ensure the release of the corresponding type of products.

Level 3. Decomposition based on the target initiation space (PIC).

The sub-objectives of the system under investigation are initiated, triggered by the requirements and needs of the environment that affects the production of the end product of the system.

In this case, all the systems with which the system under investigation interacts in the process of production of the final product are divided into four classes (Figure 5.13):

supersystem (HC) or superior systems (BC), which formulate the main requirements for the final product (and the needs in it);

subordinate or subordinate systems (PS), whose requirements are mainly as a limitation on the properties of the final product or the needs for repair organization and other logistics services bases for the production of the final product;

Fig. 5.13

essential, or current environment (AC), i.e. systems that are relevant to the production of the final product of a projected or explored system;

■ the proper (CC) system, the subgoals of which are initiated by their own (internal) needs, motivations, programs, constantly emerging in the evolving system and also transforming into requirements for the final product.

Note that this feature of structuring is based on the regularity of communicativeness, considered in Ch. 1.

Level 4. Decomposition based on the life cycle & quot ;. Different sub-stages are defined for obtaining final products depending on their types - from the formation or forecasting of the requirements in the product to consumption or delivery to the customer (see the examples in Figure 5.14).

Starting from this level of decomposition, it usually becomes more convenient to operate with the term sub-goal & quot ;, and the term function and assume that the target tree ; as it grows into the tree of functions .

Fig. 5.14

Level 5. Decomposition based on basic elements of the system (CC), as a result of which functions are formed, arising from the needs of the basic elements of the system, which are grouped into three main groups - frames K, subject of activity PD and means of activity LED (Figure 5.15), in practice, sometimes causes difficulties, and this feature can be conveniently interpreted as "activity objects" (main - PD and providing - SD, K and other system resources).

Level 6. Decomposition based on the "management cycle", the classifier of which, proposed by the authors of the methodology, is shown in Fig. 5.12.

Level 7. Decomposition based on the delegation of authority & quot ;, a classifier according to which is also shown in Fig. 5.12.

Fig. 5.15

The technique was developed. In its original version, there were five levels of decomposition. Later, two more were added. Depending on the application, the sequence of attributes changed: in many applications it is more convenient to first take the sign of the "goal-initiation space", which helps to specify the "end product types". You can differentiate the life cycle system (Figure 5.14).

The technique has found the widest application among all considered: it was used in the development of the "target tree" management of the region's economy; when forming the structure of the functional part of the territorial automated control system of the Tomsk region; the structure of the FEC sectoral automated control system (OASU) of the Ministry of Higher Education of the RSFSR; when adjusting the organizational structure of the Ministry of Higher Education, etc.

The first three signs of structuring (that is, the signs of the formation of the goal structure itself, and especially the "goal initiation area"), which are based on the regularity of communicability (dividing the complex environment into the supersystem of the NS, subordinate PS systems, the actual the environment of the AU, and the internal environment - the actual SS system, which is constantly changing in the developing system).

Obtained with this technique, the structure of the goal and functions is much more complete than with the previous one. An example of the structure is shown in Fig. 5.16.

The analysis of the space for the initiation of goals makes it necessary to pay attention to the need to maintain equipment in an efficient state, organize repair, manufacturing of special tools, special equipment and other functions, conditioned by the needs of the subordinate systems, as well as coordination and cooperation with enterprises and organizations of the current environment, as illustrated examples, shown in Fig. 5.16 - for management of output at the state enterprise and in Ch. 9 - when forming the structure of the functional part of the ASIS.

Fig. 5.16

Thus, due to the greater completeness of the definition of the system given by B. N. Sagatovsky , compared with the dual definition of the system A. I. Uyomov and the disclosure of this definition in a well-developed set of characteristics of the structure -

and on the examples of classifiers on these grounds, the technique in question provides greater completeness of analysis of the goals and functions of control systems in comparison with the previous methodology, helps to identify new functions that were not previously performed at the enterprise. The methodology is a good tool for analyzing goals and functions in the conditions of the development of the enterprise (organization), with the introduction into production and management of various innovations, technical re-equipment and reconstruction or design of new enterprises.

In the established mode of operation of the enterprise, this technique can be superfluous. In addition, there are difficulties in identifying end product types the fourth branch (the control system proper), for structuring which the following procedure proved to be convenient.

Technique based on the concept of activity. The concept of activity in one form or another is used in any structuring technique developed for the mapping and analysis of organizational management systems. At the same time, there are methods in which the concept of activity is the basis for the formation of goal structures, i.e. is used at the top levels of the structure.

The ideas about activity and its structure evolved. Accordingly, methods based on the concept of activity, use different points of view on its structure. In this method, proposed by one of the authors of the textbook in developing the main directions and problems of promising research on higher education [22, 23], the concept of activity adopted in pedagogy and psychology is used.

There are two main stages in the methodology (see Figure 5.17), which are divided into sub-stages, and the latter, in turn, into more detailed sub-steps.

When executing step 1 (see Figure 5.17), two approaches are simultaneously used to form the initial version of the structure: target, ie. approach to the formation of the structure top (sub-step 1.1) and the approach, which is called morphological, linguistic, thesaurus, ie. the structure of the bottom (sub-step 1.2).

Fig. 5.17

When sub-step 1.1 is executed, the number of hierarchy levels (sub-step 1.1.1) is selected, which for convenience assigns different names (directions, complex problems, problems, subgoals, functions); in accordance with the concept of activity adopted in the methodology, the signs of the "scope of activity" are used; (sub-step 1.1.2), activity structure and activity (sub-step 1.1.3); The following levels are structured using the characteristics recommended in Fig. 5.18 for the lower levels (sub-step 1.1.4).

Fig. 5.18

In the structure of activity, goals ("outputs"), content and forms, methods, facilities, inputs. Symptoms activity structure and activity can be swapped and mixed within the limits of the level (as it was done in the formation of the structure of the main lines of scientific research on the problems of higher education [22]).

When sub-step 1.2 (bottom-up approach) is executed, proposals are formed in parallel: they are offered by employees of structural units of different levels of the management system (sub-step 1.2.1) and are obtained on the basis of analysis of scientific and technical information (sub-step 1.2.2), then evaluation of proposals for completeness (sub-step 1.2.3); further on the sub-stage 1.3, the structures (sub-step 1.3.1) are merged, obtained by the parallel application of the approaches top and "from below", by imposing a pre-formed structure on the list of received proposals, and a decision is made (sub-step 1.3.2) on the feasibility of performing phase 2.

An example of the upper levels of the goal structure obtained using the method in question is shown in Fig. 5.19.

The second branch in Fig. 5.19 can be used to refine the fourth branch of the structure shown in Fig. 5.16, for the structuring of which there were no funds in the previous methodology.

In Phase 2 (see Figure 5.17), it is proposed to use expert assessments (sub-step 2.1.1) and indirect quantitative assessments (sub-step 2.1.2) in parallel to evaluate the structure of goals and functions by identifying the most significant components (sub-step 2.1) , which are then processed together (sub-step 2.1.3).

In peer review, a criteria system is used as criteria, similar to the one adopted in the PATTERN methodology, but with some modifications: it offers the following groups of criteria - relative importance, interrelatedness, economic estimates (the latter replaces the group of criteria state - Term ). The idea of ​​indirect quantitative estimates was suggested by the author of this chapter. The possibility of their introduction follows from the analysis of hierarchical structures on the basis of the information approach (see Chapter 3), from the results of which it follows that the structured branches of the hierarchical structure determine the actual significance given to them.

Fig. 5.19

As the indirect quantitative estimates, the number of units performing this function, the number of documents prepared for the function, the structure of the branch (for example, the number of topics divided by the problem), attention to the relevant sub-goals and functions in the policy documents can be used , periodical press, sources of STI, etc. When choosing indirect quantitative estimates, it is necessary to take into account the "space of initiating goals and factors", i.e. take into account the requirements and needs of the supersystem, reflected in legislative acts and policy documents, similar enterprises of the current environment, the interests of subordinate units, initiatives of structural units of the management system proper.

Not only traditional methods of averaging are applied to the evaluation results, but conflicting views are also revealed with a subsequent substantive analysis of these estimates.

In this case, to compare the estimates it is convenient to use graphical representations in the form of histograms similar to those shown in Fig. 5.20. An example of an analysis of the results of the estimates presented graphically in Fig. 5.20, is given below in the footnote to step 2.

On the basis of the results of the assessment, the original structure is corrected (2.1.4): the components that received the least significance estimates in comparison with others and who did not receive high connectivity estimates with high-valued ones are either excluded from the structure of the FT or fall to the lower levels of the hierarchy , and, on the contrary, the components that received high ratings of significance can be transferred to higher levels of the hierarchical structure. With such an adjustment, degenerate branches may arise, different versions of the new structure of goals and functions. In the latter case, go to sub-step 2.2.

Decision on the expediency of transition to the analysis of the structure from the point of view of centralization - decentralization of management (sub-step 2.2.2) can be taken (sub-step 2.1.5) and in the case of one version of the structure in order to compare it with similar target structures directions of development) of other enterprises or with the structure of the main directions of the previous period of development of the enterprise (organization).

Fig. 5.20

Evaluation of the structure (structural options) in terms of its shape and convenience for further use (sub-step 2.2). Comparison of the structure options can be made on the basis of the requirements for the structures of the FT formulated in the implementation of sub-step 1.1.1 (2.2.1) and using the information approach framework (sub-step 2.2.2) for comparative analysis. In the second case, the degree of integrity is assessed, which makes it possible to judge the manageability of an enterprise using the developed goal structure, the degree of centralization and decentralization of management.

You can use both approaches to evaluate variants of structures, and then - generalize results (then add sub-step 2.1.3). If sub-step 1.6.2 has made a decision to perform sub-step 2.2 first, a sub-step for deciding on the future course of work (2.2.3) may be introduced.

To collect and process expert and indirect quantitative assessments and comparative information analysis of structures, a group of relevant specialists should be created. In necessary cases, a method of organizing complex examinations based on an information approach can be used.

Note to Step 2. If the estimates are the same, the components should be considered the most significant (in Figure 5.20 - Problem 1.4).

If there is a discrepancy, conduct an additional qualitative analysis. For example, only 1.2 experts paid special attention to 1.2 (production structure). there is a rare opinion, and it is advisable to conduct an additional examination, better with a discussion at the Scientific and Technical Council. On the contrary, the problem 1.5 (components) is underestimated by higher authorities, and one can draw their attention to the need to participate in its solution. And on the problem 1.3, according to which there are the greatest disagreements and the least preparedness of the enterprise, it is advisable to carry out research.

The technique of structuring the goals of a system that strives for an ideal. P. Ackoff and F. Emery proposed to bring to the upper levels of the structure goals for the system (in their terminology - communities), aspiring to the ideal, the following components (Figure 5.21) [13]: abundance (political-economic function); truth (cognition of truth, search for value orientations of society, scientific and educational function);

Fig. 5.21

good (the function of resolving interpersonal and interpersonal conflicts and conflicts between social collectives, ie ethics, religion, jurisprudence, etc.);

beauty (a function of aesthetics that provides not only rest, but also the formation of personality, citizenship, the mechanisms of goal-making).

The methodology provides the fractality principle, ie. structuring each branch of the lower level using components of neighboring levels. For example, the function of the organization of science has a political and economic sphere, scientific ethics, aesthetics.

This technique allows to ensure the completeness of the structuring of such organizations, the goals and functions of which should cover the diverse conditions of existence and development of the individual.

For example, it is used to structure the functions of a city, region, school management system, children's preschool institutions, etc. When developing the structure of the goals and functions of the district or city administration, it is useful to combine this methodology with others.

Comparative analysis of the methods of structuring goals. The above examples of techniques for structuring goals and functions confirm the patterns of integrity and hierarchy, according to which the same system, and accordingly its purpose, can be represented by different structures, according to -to reveal the uncertainty of integrity in different ways. The difference in structures is determined by the adopted concept of the system and the preferences of the decision-makers who form it.

When comparing and comparing the methods of structuring goals, the fact that only in the methodology of PATTERN and in the methodology based on the concept of activity is explicitly provided is the stage of evaluation of the structure of goals using the formulated criteria. In the same author's presentation of other techniques on the second stage is not even mentioned. Is it legitimate to have methodologies without this stage?

An information analysis of structures helps to answer this question, which shows that the structure of branches is a reflection of the preferences of its authors, i.e. the evaluation of structures is actually carried out not only in the implementation of the second stage, but also in the process of forming the structure in the first stage. Moreover, the more levels of structuring envisaged in the methodology, the more differentiated are the ratings of the higher levels of this structure: by forming each level, the DM evaluates its components on the basis of the ratings "include - do not include" into the structure (i.e., the binary system). And estimates of the potential H obtained for the nodes of higher levels are the basis for a more accurate comparison of the components of these levels.

In other words, at almost every step of the structuring, almost both steps are carried out, but the evaluation is not carried out in the form of a specially organized expert interview procedure (using ranking methods, rationing, etc.), but by excluding the minor components from further consideration.

In this case, the decision maker should take into account the purpose, the specific features of the particular enterprise, since their estimates even on the binary system contain a qualitative component, and the upper-level upper bounds H become more differentiated and in a number of practical situations are quite sufficient for making managerial decisions on the allocation of finances, personnel and other means for the implementation of sub-goals and functions.

What has been said means that in a number of cases the second stage of the methodology can not be singled out separately, if we orient the decision maker to more carefully select the components at each step of the structuring. However, in general, to ensure the completeness of the analysis of the structure of goals and functions, it is still advisable to provide for the evaluation stage in an explicit form, especially since it may be necessary to compare several variants of structures formed by decision makers who, even using the same structuring technique, may differ due to the regularity of hierarchy.

Comparing the methodologies from the perspective of the concepts they are based on, it is possible to give some recommendations on their choice under specific conditions. Thus, the concept of the dual definition of AI Uyomov's system is oriented toward describing the statics of the system, fixing the already achieved ideas about it in the decision maker. Of course, it allows the inclusion of new management objects, the change of functions in the control cycle (which happens as the methodology develops), but it does not have the means to help identify new objects, functions, activities such as the introduction of new technology, technology, innovations in management activities. The methodology, based on the concept of a system that takes into account its interaction with the environment, is useful to apply at the stages of system development, revision of production and organizational structures, while designing new enterprises. It helps to identify new types of activities, management objects.

The need to use a technique based on the concept of activity arises when the object under study or created is not sufficiently studied, i.e. in cases of raising new problems, structuring the development goals for new types of activities. The methodology P. Akoffa and F. Emery helps to ensure the completeness of the identification of sub-goals and functions for the management system of the district, city, to manage the non-industrial activities of the enterprise (cultural and household, children's institutions and other institutions of the social sphere).

Thus, when choosing and developing a methodology for structuring the goals and functions of the management system, the following features should be considered:

1) the state of the system (whether it is in a stable state, or, in connection with the reconstruction of production, restructuring the management system, changing the principles of organization of the economy, etc., requires a substantial revision of its objectives and functions, or the system has not been explored yet );

2) the nature of the activity being analyzed;

3) the degree of cognition of the object (ie, the available ideas about it in individuals forming the structure of the FT);

4) the allotted period of time for designing or transforming the control system (affecting the ability to complete the procedure, including both stages), etc.

Therefore, it is advisable to have a generalized methodology for the formation and analysis of goals and functions structures, which would include several structuring techniques, several methods for evaluating structures (in the second stage), and providing the possibility of choosing the method of obtaining the initial variant (variants) of the structure and methods for its evaluation, most suitable for the corresponding period of development of the enterprise and its system of organizational management, taking into account the nature, volumes and other specific features of the created prescription iyatiya (organization). Such a methodology can become the basis for the formation of specific methods for projected or transformed enterprises (organizations). The structure and content of the main stages of this generalized methodology are set out in paragraph 5.4.

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