Technological Considerations in Software Design

Technological Things to consider in Program Design

Physical characteristics of these devices and device internal software affects the screen user interface design. Images compatibility for Display design must be made certain with the following system components
  • System ability.
  • Screen size.
  • Screen image resolution.
  • Display colors.
  • Other screen features.
  • Development and implementation tools being utilized.
  • System platform getting used.
  • Platform style guide being utilized.

Information Retrieval (IR): it concerns with the analysis of finding required data. i. e. , IR helps users to notice data that fits their data desires. Officially, IR studies the organization, acquisition, distribution, storage area, and retrieval of data.

Information retrieval models

An IR model directs what sort of document and a query are characterized and how the need for a doc to a consumer query is identified. Following are the primary models in IR

  • Boolean model
  • Each document or query in Boolean model, is cured as a "bag" of words or terms. Mathematically for confirmed assortment of documents D, let V = t1, t2, . . . , t be the group of distinctive words/terms in the collection. V is named the vocabulary. A weight wij> 0 is associated with each term tiof a doc djD. For the term that does not appear in record dj, wij= 0.

dj= (w1j, w2j, . . . , w|V|j),

  • Query terms are combined mutually logically using the Boolean operators such as AND, OR and NOT.

Example : ((data AND warehousing) AND (NOT content material))

  • Vector space model (VSM)
  • In VSM too, Documents are cared for as a "bag" of words or terms. Each doc is represented as a vector. However, the word weights are no more 0 or 1. Each term weight is computed based on some variations of called Term Consistency TF or TF-IDF structure.
  • Term Occurrence (TF) Plan: The weight of the term tiin record djis the amount of times that tiappears in dj, denoted by fij. Normalization can also be applied.

, ,


tf: still term frequency

idf: inverse record frequency.

n: final number of docs

dfi: the amount of docs that ti shows up.

1. 5. 5 Popular HCI Tools

HCI Browser

This Web browser (HCIB) was created and carried out by the research team of NEW YORK University. It could be downloaded fromhttp://ils. unc. edu/hcibrowser. Pursuing are the top features of HCI Browser
  • Web presenting process can be examined employing this tool.
  • designed to aid research activities in HCI through internet
  • Can be added as an add-on to the Firefox web browser.
  • Presents procedures for users employed in toolbar area.
  • Presents the following to the users:
  • administer pre- job questionnaires
  • administer post-task questionnaires
  • event data of looking and surfing around activities.
  • Saves the following events of browser:
    • Pages loaded
    • Links clicked
    • Window and tab focus changes
    • Open/close home windows and tabs
    • Back/ahead button clicks
    • Typed URLs
    • Scrolling
    • History/bookmarks menu
    • Closes windows automatically.
    • Generates a new log file for each process
    • Includes the following entries for log document:
      • login time,
      • session id,
      • user id, and
      • Process id
      • Sketch Tools

        Natural art work designers may need many free form software tools to express their sketching designs. At this time, existing software tools support pen and printer ink suggestions to certain scope only. There is a need for clever software that can sketch, recognize and convert the natural sketches automatically. Pursuing are such tools


        It is a toolkit used to sketch diagrams. It can be applied over a variety of domains.

        This software is able to run on a Tablet Computer. InkKit consists of the next
        1. User Interface
        1. The interface is reinforced by two main views:
        1. sketch pages
          • This view supports easy pulling process.
          • portfolios.
            • Here this point displays a couple of sketches. These sketches can be linked to enable connections.
            1. Recognition Engine
            1. The electricity of InkKitis its reputation engine
            2. To recognize a particular diagram, it creates a diagram domain name and provides cases.

            The sketches on this interface design will normally be converted into both HTML and Java. It really is a research tool suitable for non-commercial purpose.


            Freeform tools provide a pen based user interface. This tool is principally used to design settings in the varieties by hand sketching.

            Requirements :Visual Basic


            • Designs of consumer interfaces are quicker and easier than creating them with a form builder.


            Sketchnode is a tool used to sketch graphs with ends and nodes easily. This tool runs on Tablet Laptop or computer. Design in this tool can be either done by pen or using drag and drop conversation. Optimization algorithms are being used for transforming of not yet determined graph into a clearer one.


            • supports both low and high fidelity graph rendering.
            • Easy design process
            • No convolution of images credited to optimization.

            Intelligent Head Map

            Humans effectively and very easily split between pulling and writing ink. This split is difficult to achieve in digital systems. This tool facilitates for the casual report on the tablet Personal computer by reputation and printer ink reflow techniques.


            This tool is designed to generate task representations in hierarchical manner. This research was completed in the Patras School. The original process of this TATool is to analysis the task in interactive system design. It really is recognized as the tool to design hierarchical buildings and Visualized objects This tool TATool generates result in XML form and an RTF survey. This software operates only on Home windows OS. It maps user-system interaction's recorded events to the procedure model.


            It is one of the HCI tools used to forecast total execution time for a skilled user for accomplishing a particular series of actions on something. The predictions created by CogTool derive from, a psychological theory of individual cognitive and motor capacities, called the Keystroke-Level Model (KLM). Following will be the features
            • automates the application of KLM to specific problems, providing an alternative to time-consuming and expensive individual testing.
            • predicts what KLM can predict, that is, execution time for a skilled user of something.


            It cannot forecast learning time, problem-solving paths, or end user satisfaction with a system.


            CMTool aims to achieve the process modelling process. Any major job can be splitted into many sub responsibilities by split and overcome strategy and organising the duty in hierarchical composition. This tool uses this hierarchical way along with rational providers such as AND, OR, NOT to solve the sub task. Pursuing are its features
            • supports graphical and persona notations for job representation.
            • supports temporal research for every task
            • supports relational data source, grouping the various systems examined, with additional id information.
            • supports quantitative evaluation tools for the task metrics
            • provides various representations of data by means of tree view, report view, organized view.
            • automates synthesis of task buildings already stored

            1. 6 Structures of HCI systems

            Architecture of a HCI system should describe the working procedure of cooperation between inputs and outputs.

            There are two standard HCI architectures as follows
            1. Unimodal systems
            2. Multimodal systems

            1. 6. 1 Unimodal Architecture

            Modality means an independent single route. Unimodal systems are designed based on solitary modality. They are further classified based on the nature as follows
            • Visual
            • Audio
            • Sensor

            1. 6. 1. 1 Visible HCI:

            Its application areas are cosmetic expression evaluation, Body movement tracking, gesture identification and Gaze diagnosis.

            Table 1. 7 - Visual HCI Research areas

            Research Area


            Gaze detection

            Eyes activity tracking

            Facial appearance analysis

            Recognizing thoughts visually

            Body movements tracking

            Command and action scenario

            Gesture recognition

            Command and action scenario

            1. 6. 1. 2 Audio HCI

            This uses various sound signals to obtain information. They may be helpful, unique and trustable. It's request areas are speaker recognition, musical integration, auditory feelings analysis and People made noises or indication detections.

            1. 6. 1. 3 Sensor HCI

            It uses atleast one sensor between individual and computer to allow interaction. Examples of sensors aren't limited to pen based connection, joysticks, mouse-keyboard, haptic sensors, style or smell sensors, pressure sensors and motion traffic monitoring sensors.

            1. 6. 2 Multimodal Architecture

            It combines multiple modalities. Here modalities refer to communication channels. The programs are sensors for vision, taste, notice, smell and touch. Gesture, speech and gaze are common forms of insight models. The examples of multimodal applications are not limited by smart training video conferencing, driver monitoring, intelligent game titles, assisting disable people and smart homes.

            1. 7 Advances in HCI

            Ubiquitous Computing and Ambient Intelligence
            It is also called third way of computing that is connections among many computer systems and one person. The evolution is really as follows
            • First way of computing - main shape era - many people one computer.
            • Second way of processing - PC era - one individual many pcs.

            1. 8 Overview

            The staying part of the e book includes both theoretical materials and practical approaches to designing consumer interfaces. The issues include
            • Usability anatomist principles
            • Experimental and prototype cognitive architectures
            • Design of effective spoken dialogue systems
            • Role of recommender [e1]systems in web technologies
            • Advanced visualization techniques based on ontologies
            • Intelligent and adaptive HCI
            • Ubiquitous computing and Ambient Intelligence.

            1. 9 HCI Sample Exercises

            1. Application of Weber's Laws in the design of Human Interfaces
            1. Weber's Law
            1. It state governments that the size of the observable various is a continuous percentage (K times) of the genuine stimulus value.
            2. Stimulus depth must be modified with a minimum amount to develop a observable difference in sensory experience.
          • Weber's Regulation to user interfaces
            1. Information in your computer can be displayed in various platforms such as word, pictures, drawings, maps, graphs, videos etc. This information may be from small to large in size with regards to the following:
              1. Brightness
              2. loudness
              3. line length
              4. visual weight of fonts in typography
              5. color matching
              6. Weber's law really helps to analyze and design the aforementioned effectively.


                Changing Shape - Rectangle Experiment

                1. Design an application with the following :
                1. 6 rectangular blocks -things with different colour
                2. a stop clock timer -to observe the time value
                3. Start button -to start the event
                4. Text pack -to display enough time value
                5. Reset button-to restart the experiment
              7. Press "START"button.
              8. Observe all blocks minutely and identify the one which expands in breadth after some time.
              9. Stop timer themoment difference is recognized.
              10. Record time.
              11. Repeat steps 2 to 5 and plot graph between'% colour difference'and'number of efforts'.
              12. Repeat same experiment by pressing "RESET" button.
              13. Changing Shape - Group Experiment

                1. Design an application with the following
                1. six circles-object with colour
                2. a stop clock timer -to observe the time value
                3. Start button -to start the event
                4. Text field -to display the value
                5. Reset button-to restart the experiment
              14. Press"START"button.
              15. Observe all circles minutely and identify the the one that expands in radius over time.
              16. Stop timer themomentarea difference is revealed.
              17. Record time and the % recognized difference or the %area difference.
              18. Repeat steps 2 to 5 and story graph between'% radial difference'Vs'number of makes an attempt'.
              19. ChangingColor - CircleExperiment

                1. Design an application with the following
                1. 6 circles-object with colour
                2. a stop clock timer -to take notice of the time value
                3. Start button -to start the event
                4. Text box -to screen the value
                5. Reset button-to restart the experiment
              20. Press"START"button.
              21. Observe all circles minutely and identify the the one which changes colour after some time.
              22. Stop timer the moment coloring difference is diagnosed.
              23. Record time and the % noticed difference or the %area difference.
              24. Repeat steps 2 to 5 and story graph between'% color difference'Vs'number of tries'.
              25. Discussion

                • Good interface design can be produced by avoiding uneven size or mismatching coloring controls.
                1. GOMS(Goals, Operators, Methods, andSelection rules)


                To create a GOMSmodelforcomparing the actualtimetaken for a task by two interfaces and predict the best one.

                Experimental Procedure

                1. Design twodifferent end user interfaces with the next controls:
                1. Label-to screen users with questions
                2. Text box-to acquire information about the user
                3. Button-to perform action
                4. Timer-to inform period to the user
                5. List package / option button-to display answers to the questions
              26. Make Interface-1to have list-boxestoinput individual responses.
              27. Make Interface-2to haveradio-buttons toinput end user responses.
              28. Use this interfaces to rate knowledge of few core subjects.
              29. Press"Start"button tostartrecordtime beforeshowing responses to interface-1
              30. Giveresponses for each and every subject using program-1.
              31. Press"Stop"buttonto stop recording of their time after concluding all replies.
              32. Repeatsameprocedurefromsteps 5to7forinterface-2.
              33. Observation
                • There might be considered a difference in the task completion time, because of
                • Difference in conversation elementschosen andtheir layout
                • a cognitive / perceptual factor is contributing to task conclusion time
              34. An interaction process is always led by an individual goals, interface operators andalternative methods available on interface for attaining those goals.
                1. Colour Design for a Customer Form


                To apply shade theoryand features necessary for colour textand record legibility in creating attractiveuser form.


                Primary Colours: colors that cannot be created by mixing up others.

                e. g. Red, yellow and blue.

                Secondary Colours:colors achieved by an assortment of two primaries

                e. g. Green, orange and purple

                Tertiary Colours:colours achieved by an assortment of primary and

                secondary hues.

                e. g. Yellow-orange, red-orange, red-purple,

                blue-purple, blue-green & yellow-green

                Complementary Colours: shades located opposite one another on a color wheel.

                Analogous Colours:colors located close along on a colour wheel.


                1. Design a form thatconsistsoftwosections
                1. Contentwindow
                2. Colour- settingwindow
              35. Design a Content Screen with broad blackoutline.
                1. Split broad put together as three or more sections based on the use withthin blackborders.
                2. Selectanyofthesesectionsbyclickingwithintheboundary.
                3. Change selection section border colour into red.
                4. Use coloursettingwindow tochange colours of the selectedsection.
                5. Design a Coloring settingwindow(Textcoloursetting)
                  1. Place three text message containers and slider to get RGB colour worth.
                  2. Design a button to apply the computed RGB colorvalue.
                  3. Design a Colour-settingwindow(Bakgroundcolour setting)
                    1. Place three text message containers and slider to receive RGB colour principles.
                    2. Design a button to use the computed RGB colourvalue.
                    3. Apply colour brightness difference and coloring difference formulae to see if indeed they actually work in practiceimproving legibility of the color text.
                    4. Observations:

                      • Allows user to use various colors to words as well as its backdrop andcreate differentcolourcontrasts.

                      Review Questions

                      1. How will you justify HCI as an interdisciplinary research domain?
                      2. Why is HCI so important?
                      3. Describe the platform of the three level style of HCI.
                      4. Summarize the factors in HCI.
                      5. Describe the framework of broad HCI issues and concerns.
                      6. Discuss on the look key points of HCI
                      7. Summarize advanced I/O devices

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