The concept of a multi-level information system of the organization
In connection with the realization of the enormous influence of information resources on the social and economic development of society, individual countries and regions, the concept of the Information Infrastructure (AI) emerged. The term was introduced in foreign and domestic publications in the late 1990s.
The term infrastructure (lat. infra - under, below, structure - structure, construction) appeared at first in the construction business and meant the foundation, foundation, lower structure.
In the future, the concept was expanded, and in a figurative sense, it meant the collection of structures external to the object under consideration, including not only in construction, but also in relation to production, to non-industrial organizations.
In our country, the need to introduce the concept of information infrastructure (AI) was first noticed in the article F. Shirokova and In. Drozhzhinov .
Attempts to develop the concept of the information infrastructure of the organization on the example of the university were initiated in the 1990s. students A. A. Ionov and And. V. Relina - members of the Youth Academic Society at the Scientific Council on the problems of higher education, training and attestation of scientific and pedagogical staff of the St. Petersburg Branch of the International Academy of Higher School Sciences.
To manage the development of IP, it was proposed to conditionally represent it in the form of four strata (Table 8.2): user, functional, information, communication (information superhighway).
Information System Strata
Strata 1. Custom
Actually, users, including the formation of their information needs and the rules of interaction with the information system
Strata 2. Functional layer
A set of services provided to users by various information providers: access to databases and libraries, standards, etc.
Strata 3. Information layer
Information in telecommunication networks, databases and information storages of libraries, departments of scientific and technical information, etc.
Information resources: directories, websites, statistical information, regulatory information, etc.
Strata 4. Information superhighway Information telecommunications. Information technology means
To substantiate the concept of creating a multi-level information system of the organization, the analysis of system definitions and approaches to their development proposed in system theory was used.
The most preferable when creating information systems for socio-economic objects is the system-target approach - from the goals, needs (ie "from above") and the definition of the system (3.7) based on it.
Generalized definition of IPS
Given the analysis of the development of the definitions of the system and a more detailed analysis of the definitions of information retrieval systems given in Ch. 6, the definition of IP is formulated, which includes elements of different kinds, and purposes (usually a multi-level structure of the functional part of the ACS or the structure of information needs), and structures (the structure of information, software and other types of support in the ACS, the structure of the IPS), and relations between components, and technologies in a broad sense (methods, algorithms, information processing technologies), and environment (external and internal factors), and temporal interests, and lo the hypo-semantic apparatus, and people interacting with the system (designers, users and maintenance personnel). In this case, taking into account a large number of factors, you can first include enlarged sets in the system, and then open them:
Where Z - goals, which in AIS can be interpreted as the structure of the functional part of the ACS, and in documentary and documentary-factual IS - as a need; STR - structures of information arrays, i.e. databases in factographic systems, search arrays of documents D (a certain number of documents provided with search images) in documented IPS, information storages of all kinds (the choice of the term is dictated by the volumes of information arrays and specific conditions); LS = & lt; RL, IND, KSS & gt; - a logical semantic apparatus including the information retrieval languages RL, the indexing system IND and the criteria issuance (or the criteria of the sense of conformity KSS ); TECH - technologies in a broad sense, including TS - technical means (ie devices or devices that are necessary for the collection, registration, storage, processing and presentation of information) meth - methods of collecting, storing, processing information, including algorithms alg, program procedures or application packages PPP, IT IT etc .; COND - conditions, i.e. external φext and internal φint factors influencing the creation and functioning of IP, for the analysis of which it is useful to use the sign "space for initiating targets", i.e. to reveal the factors of the supersystem and the actual environment (& lt; pftrt), the subordinate and proper system (φint); Δ T is the time interval for the creation and functioning ( life ) of the information system; N are people interacting with the system, i.e. tc who orders, designs IP, uses this IC and services it, indexes documents and information requests, chooses a search strategy, and performs other intellectual operations without which information retrieval is impossible.
For the generalizing title of all those involved in the development and use of systems, W.R. Ashby introduced the term "observer" at the beginning of the development of cybernetics and system theory, and nowadays the term "stakeholders" is often used & quot ;. The literal translation of the term stakeholders - bet holders players in the tote at the racetrack. When translated into United States, the options "shareholders", "interested parties" were suggested. Each of them is inaccurate: shareholders - The incomplete composition of persons interacting with the system, among them may be "disinterested" face. Therefore, the term was retained without translation, and it is often used in the study or design of information systems.
The definition (8.1) can be interpreted taking into account the purpose of the type of information system, the conditions for its development.
Recording definitions in a formalized form helps to preserve a holistic view of the concept underlying the definition.
However, it is important to understand that when developing an information system for enterprises, organizations, one should proceed from their goals, i.e. form the structure of the AIS FC on the basis of the analysis of the organization's goals and functions and identify the most significant subsystems for automation. Therefore, we need to start with the formulation of the concept of the system design, the definition of the system corresponding to this concept, the analysis of the goals and the role of all types of information resources for the realization of the goals, and then choose technologies (methods, algorithms, tools, including ready-made software products ) taking into account their compliance with the objectives.
The above definition helps to theoretically justify the concept of a multilevel information system. This definition, reflecting the system-target approach to system design, can be interpreted taking into account the purpose, the type of information system, the conditions for its development.
For example, the stratified structure shown in Fig. 8.1, taking into account the existing concept and terminology in the theory of development of automated control systems and systems of scientific and technical information can be interpreted as follows.
The goals Z in the definition (8.1) are realized in the form of the functional stratum.
The purpose of the functional strata is to provide convenient access to the information stores - information stratum.
To do this, it is necessary to structure the directions of activity, the goals of the Z organization, to determine the interrelations between the directions of activity, goals (sub-goals) and components of the information stratum, as shown in Fig. 8.1.
One of the forms of realization of access to information is the structure of the functional part of the ACS, designed to provide information to the sphere of organizational management. In libraries, a similar index is performed by the index.
In the systems of scientific and technical information, this stratum is implemented in the form of determining the information needs of users and creating systems for selective information distribution (IRI) and differential management services (DOR).
In the ACS to provide factual information, it is implemented in the form of the structure of functions of automated workstations (AWP) for professionals of appropriate qualifications, officials.
The Information Strat implements the information support structure - STR in the definition (8.1). It unites information storages of all kinds, created in the organization in different forms and on various carriers. Information stratum can include information about external information storages with corresponding forms of access to them (for example, libraries - interlibrary loan - IBA).
The lower stratum, called communication, implements the TECH, component, i.e. includes technical, algorithmic, software of the information system, including interaction in the Internet, if it is created in the organization, and interaction between local networks or individual computers, technical means of collecting, recording, storing and processing information.
Fig. 8.1. Multi-level structure of the information system
The N component reflects the custom stratum. This stratum should provide access to information not only to managers, but also to all employees of the organization.
To implement a custom stratum, you need to define the appropriate user groups.
In the research organization - it's scientific employees, project managers, heads of the organization, etc., at the production enterprise - heads of departments of the organizational structure, in the medical institution - doctors, nurses, administration; in the university - this is, for example, teachers, students, employees of laboratories and organizational units of the management apparatus, etc.
It is necessary to determine the interrelationships of the components of the user stratum with existing directions and structures of the functional stratum, provide access to these structures, including in the form of advertising, information letters (for example, conferences, events, forms of access to information sources, and propagation of information, etc.).
Ideally, it is desirable to create an appropriate information retrieval system to inform users about existing functional directions and storage facilities upon request.
A custom stratum in organizations, as a rule, has not yet been created, even for executives of the organization. It develops in the process of decision making.
The stratified representation shown in Fig. 8.1, helps to clarify the purpose and interactions of various aspects of the implementation of the components of the information system included in the definition of the system (8.1).
In connection with the ambiguous use of the term "infrastructure" in publications, it is more appropriate to treat the structure in Fig. 8.1 as a multi-level (stratified) integrated information system (MIIS).
The concept of a stratified information system in specific conditions requires refinement and development.
For example, if we take into account other components of the technology TECH, included in the definition (8.1), then additional strata containing the tools (algorithms, software products) to enable more complete exploration of the relationships between the components of these strata.
If you take into account the logical semantic apparatus LS, then the practical implementation of the concept is realized by creating information retrieval systems operating in selective information distribution modes and retrospective search for arbitrary queries, based on information stratum resources, network of the Internet and local computer networks.
The establishment of MIIS requires the development and application of appropriate methods and automated procedures for determining the composition of the components of each stratum, assessing the impact of a project in the field of MIIS on the development of the organization.
The stratified view helps to solve the problem of project management and AI development programs on the basis of their evaluation with the purpose of allocating financial, material and human resources, for which a methodology is developed that takes into account the degree of influence of projects on the organization's objectives.
In order to study the interrelations between strata, it is necessary to use methods and models of system analysis: methods for structuring goals and functions, methods for organizing complex examinations.
In particular, for the analysis and formation of the functional stratum , it is advisable to use the methods of structuring goals and functions, methods of analyzing information needs, developed in the theory of information retrieval. Estimation of the importance of the elements of each stratum can be carried out using methods of organizing complex examinations [1, 3, 19, etc.] (paired comparisons in the modification of T. Saati, GS Pospelov's solving matrices method, AA Denisov's information approach ), take into account the heterogeneous criteria - technical, economic, social.Thus, the proposed concept for the development of an integrated information system is based on a stratified representation of its structure in conditions of using territorially distributed and mutually independent information bases and temporarily combining them on the basis of the development of previously studied and formalized algorithms and program procedures ensuring the selection of the necessary information to satisfy customer requests.
When implementing the proposed concept, the information system is a system of organizational structures that ensure the functioning and development of the information space of the enterprise and the means of information interaction, i.e. includes a set of information centers, data and knowledge banks, communication systems, provides consumers access to information resources on the basis of developed algorithms and regulatory support that regulates access to information.
Automation of information support of managerial decision-making processes and information needs of users when a DM or another person addresses an information system should initiate a process by which a user is searched for information based on the use of territorially distributed information arrays.
Under these conditions, the task of informational support of decision-making processes is the task of forming algorithms for calling information arrays stored and updated in various distributed and independent databases and information systems.
It is interesting to note that the multi-level structure of the information system, obtained on the basis of the definition of the system, can be brought into correspondence with those listed in Table. 8.1 and defined by the concept of an enterprise architecture such as TOGAF. If you place these components under each other - from the Users to the Technological architecture component, a multi-level structure is shown in Fig. 8.2.
In this structure, a functional stratum is formed on the basis of analysis of business processes, and a stratum of software applications is placed between the functional stratum (business architecture) and the information stratum (data architecture), which can be interpreted as a specific logical semantic apparatus LS.
In the considered examples of the implementation of the concept of the system underlying the definition of the system (8.1), the COND component is not used until the conditions of the system functioning taking into account internal φint and external factors of the environment in which the information system functions . At the same time, this component must be taken into account both at the design stage and during the operation of the IS, which is prompted by the definition (8.1).
Fig. 8.2. Multilevel IP structure based on the idea of TOGAF
In particular, in the process of functioning of the IC when searching information in response to user requests, it is necessary to take into account that information can be contained not only in the IP arrays themselves, but also in external databases contained, for example, in the Internet, local area networks , in sources of scientific and technical information available through the interlibrary loan (IBA), etc.
With in-depth detail of the strata, structuring techniques based on other concepts of the system can be used [1, 19, 26].
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