The concept of information as a resource enterprise...

The concept of information as a resource of an enterprise (organization)

During the long history of the development of civilization, activities that go beyond the limits of material production and maintenance were related to unproductive costs. The economic status of the state was determined by the available material and energy resources. However, it is now realized that the main resource of manufacturing enterprises and other organizations is information.

The transition to science-intensive production in the second half of XX century. was accompanied by the emergence of new types of information exchange. The dependence of the economy on the sources, volumes and quality of information (scientific, technical, economic, political, etc.) increased, on the level of development of the means of access to this information, which led to the formation at the turn of the 1980s. XX century of a fundamentally new economic category - national information resources. Intensive economic development becomes impossible without effective information support. Information has become a strategic resource, the role of knowledge has significantly increased.

In social and economic management systems, depending on the form, the documentary and factographic are distinguished, depending on the applications - economic, social and that similar information, classified according to various characteristics.

The information space of an enterprise (organization) should include the entire spectrum of various types of information that reflects the state and functioning of a particular enterprise or organization:

• Information on the state of production (or maintenance) and its provision with material, financial and other resources, presented in the form of data or facts (factual information);

• scientific and technical information, represented in the form of text documents (documentary information);

• Regulatory information, also presented in the form of texts, in which it is necessary to search for such elements as norms, articles, i.e. snippets of text;

• regulatory, technical, regulatory, methodological, marketing, monitoring information, which is documentary-factual, i.e. presented in the form of texts, from which it is necessary to extract specific data on production standards, the state of the environment, information about the availability and prices of goods in the markets, etc.

Different researchers offered different ways of classifying information support.

So, from the point of view of the interaction of the enterprise (organization) with the environment, it is common to divide all information into incoming and outgoing. Depending on the storage period, the conditionally constant (sometimes updated) and variable (regularly changing). Classify the information and by management levels (corporate, intra-plant, shop, intra-shop), by the nature of the activity (design and technological, accounting, reporting, planning, etc.).

In automated systems, information support is divided into machine (in computer memory) and out-of-the-box (on paper).

Different classifications were proposed and used in management systems, usually for information created and stored in the form of documents (orders, plans, letters, reference tables, statistical reports, etc.).

However, with the development of automated tools, it became possible to register and store information in the form of separate facts (characteristics of objects, events, operations, etc.), i.e. in the form of arrays factual information (the term was introduced in the theory of scientific and technical information), in which data can be sorted according to various characteristics and output in various forms that are convenient for solving a particular administrative or project task.

When creating data banks or databases of factual information, more diverse classifications were used. For example, the main object array (GP), an array of product composition (SI), an array of workplaces or work centers (RM, RC), an array of operational labor standards (PTN), were formed in the banks of the BANK and SID databases created for displaying the production process, e. the groups of data characterizing the subject, means, working conditions in the production of specific products were singled out. When creating information arrays about personnel (employees of the enterprise), the data was classified in accordance with the personal work of the employee, highlighting socio-demographic, production, public and other information about the individual.

The separation into documentary and factographic of information is of a more fundamental nature when it comes to scientific and technical information (monographs, articles, reports, patents, legislative acts, P.). Such information is formed by the person always in the form of texts, i.e. in the form of documentary information, and texts (even relatively structured) have a number of principal features (synonymy, homonymy, paradoxes) that make it difficult to extract the factual information necessary for solving design or management tasks from them.

Sometimes the concept of fact is sometimes complicated, which should be a minimum information unit, which is of fundamental importance for a particular type of activity. In particular, in relation to the normative-legal information is a fact not a separate term, but a legally significant norm regulating management activity, and this form of fact must have a certain structure.

In other words, in case of factual analysis of the text, it is a question of dismembering the whole object (text) into the minimally significant parts (facts), and here it is necessary to take into account the recommendations on the dismemberment of the system into elements; apply concepts of system theory and system analysis.

Various classifications are introduced and used for scientific and technical information: by types of sources of documentary information (primary and secondary), types of information publications (national, sectoral, intrafirm), etc. (for more details, see Chapter 6).

Recently, another important type of information appeared - software products (software certified and offered for distribution, including for sale). This software for CNC machines, automatic lines, etc., computer programs for planning, accounting and maintenance of production processes, software support for research, management and marketing, software tools for automating information retrieval, data mining, and the like.

At the same time, scientific and technical information and software products can be targeted not only at the domestic consumer, but also be the subject of export. To more effectively meet the production needs of enterprise employees, it is advisable to develop classifiers not only by types of information, but also by its content, i.e. on the functions of the production process, organizational management, etc. In particular, first of all, it is useful to structure a variety of information about its purpose.

An example of information structuring for a production system is shown in Fig. 2.1, on which information is structured according to the areas of the enterprise: production information, information for research activities, information for organizational management, scientific and technical information.

Developing the structure of information support for enterprises or organizations is an important and complex task, from the decision of which the effectiveness of their activities largely depends.

This task should be solved taking into account the specific features of the enterprise (organization). At the same time, it is necessary to develop a multidimensional classification that will allow to more fully characterize the information resources of the organization (ie, take into account the type, nature, purpose of the information, its orientation to internal needs or for export, etc.).

Classifications help to form documents from the factual information - forms of statistical reporting, references for managers of various management system services, etc. At the same time, it follows from the foregoing that the information support of an enterprise is a collection of data, language data description tools, information processing software, as well as procedures and methods for its organization, storage, accumulation and access to it.

In Fig. 2.1 provides an example of the structure of information support for an enterprise (organization), the upper level of which can be taken as the basis for any organization, and the lower levels are divided based on a meaningful analysis of decision-making processes in a particular organization.

Structure of information sources for the production system

Fig. 2.1. Structure of information sources for the production system

It is also important to take into account the multifaceted nature of the problem of organizing the collection, storage, retrieval and presentation of information, which can be done by stratified representation (by levels) of the information infrastructure.

Considering information as a resource for the development of society, organizations distinguish its main characteristics, due to which information: 1) represents the most important resource for the development of modern society, enterprise, organization, for example, reduces the need for land, labor, capital, reduces consumption of raw materials and energy; 2) brings to life new production; 3) is a commodity, and the seller of information does not lose it after the sale; 4) attach additional value to other resources, in particular labor, when an employee with a higher education is valued more than with an average; 5) can accumulate.

Summarizing and refracting the results of research on the concept of "information" as applied to the problem of using information as a resource for the development of enterprises and organizations, identify a number of specific features of information that make it different from other types of resources: practically non-decreasing potential information efficiency, replicability and multiple use, the dependence of the actual realizability and efficiency on the degree of use of information, abstract character, etc.

The main ones are summarized in Table. 2.1.

Table 2.1

Key features of the information

Features of information

Brief description

Practically non-decreasing potential effectiveness of information

The potential effectiveness of information resources does not disappear after not only a single, but also multiple use of the same information (a decrease in efficiency can be due only to obsolescence of information), while the main characteristic of material resources (mineral, .p.) - their potential effectiveness - decreases as they are used. In the case of renewable resources, their potential effectiveness can be restored, but this requires a certain (often significant) period. Potential efficiency of artificially created technical means, including equipment, also has a limit determined by their service life, and disappears after the machine or other technical means is decommissioned.

This feature of information resources is often realized not immediately, but many years later (as it happened, for example, with a number of discoveries, inventions or new ideas not understood by generations during the life of their authors)

Independence of information from its creators

The property of information incessantness is one of the conditions for the non-decreasing potential effectiveness of information and leads to a relative independence of information from its creators

Replicability and Reuse

Sometimes speak about the replicability of technical means, for example, a machine tool. But in this case we are talking about the replicability of the machine design, idea, i.e. information, and to create each instance of a machine of the same type, you again need to spend a pile, while when replicating information, the labor (mental) to create it is no longer spent, and the labor expended for reproduction of information , is insignificant and it, as a rule, can be neglected at an estimation of efficiency of use of the information

Nonadditivity, non-commutativity and non-associativity of information

The absence of the additivity, commutativity, and associativity properties of information means that the information contained in a message is not simply the arithmetic sum of the information elements composing this message, that these elements can not be placed in the message in any arbitrary sequence without distortion of meaning and grouped into arbitrary combinations. This feature of information refers to scientific and social information

Cumulative information

This property, which also characterizes mainly scientific and social information, is associated with one of the basic laws of the development of science and society - its continuity. The previous achievements of science and culture are the foundation for the further development of scientific thought and society. Therefore, not only new discoveries are needed, but also a special work on the systematization, evaluation and compilation of information. The phenomenon of concentration of information in time is also closely connected with the cumulative property. the transition of knowledge about the world to ever higher levels of abstraction

Dependence of the actual realizability and efficiency of information on the degree of its use

In case of material resources, efficiency can be estimated by the coefficient of use of materials, raw materials, electricity, etc., the efficiency of equipment and other technical means. Evaluating the realizability and effectiveness of information is a more complex problem, which will be briefly considered below

Necessity of having source , carrier and receiver (consumer of information)

The message becomes information only when there is source, carrier (including transmitter, media) and receiver (consumer), which should want to receive information and be capable of understanding and using it.

This feature is decisive in assessing both the potential and actual implementation of the effectiveness of information resources

Matter and information - paired philosophical categories

The appearance of new information always accompanies the emergence (creation) of new forms of existence of material objects and processes, regardless of whether their creators realize this fact. Therefore, virtually all professional groups of workers of the enterprise contribute to the formation of information resources: workers who create new product samples and take part in technology improvement (rationalization and inventive activity), engineers and technicians who design products, systems, new technological processes and .p, scientists and scientists who study the phenomena and processes of natural and artificial (created by human hands)

of the world, make discoveries, develop the fundamental foundations of future new products, systems, technologies, as well as managers of enterprises (organizations) and managers who deal directly with the registration, storage and processing of production and management information of all kinds

Availability of value

The value, or usefulness, of information affects the behavior of the recipient of information, on the acceptance of managerial decisions. Information has the greater value, the more it influences the achievement of the goals facing the recipient of information

There are a number of other features of information specific to scientific and technical information, which will be discussed in Ch. 6.

thematic pictures

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