The emergence and development of informatics - Informatics

The appearance and development of computer science

The invention of computer science can be considered the invention of writing and printing, which made it possible to accumulate information and transfer it from generation to generation. An important milestone in its development was the telegraph, telephone, radio and television, as well as magnetic recording facilities, which enabled the rapid transfer and accumulation of information in large volumes. Development and wide distribution of electronic computers (computers) were accompanied by the emergence of various information technologies. The allocation of informatics to an independent field of human activity and its rapid development is due to:

• the emergence of integrated circuits and the invention of a microprocessor. Thanks to their use, the functions and the dimensions of the computer were significantly expanded. There were personal computers - single-user micro-computers that meet the requirements of universality and universality. In addition to computing, computers are used for creating text and graphics, processing audio and video signals, storing and managing large amounts of data and other purposes;

• the emergence and widespread use of local and global computer networks. Thanks to this, it became possible not only to process and store information, but also to transmit it over very long distances.

The emergence of informatics is also due to the development of the global process of informatization of society, reflecting the general pattern of the development of civilization. Under informatization is understood the organizational scientific and technical and socio-economic process of creating conditions for satisfying the information needs of citizens of society. Informatization of society changes the habitual conditions of people's lives, their production activities, life and leisure.

Originating in the depths of cybernetics, computer science as a science rapidly expands its subject area. From the technical discipline on methods and means of data processing with the help of computer technology, informatics turns into a fundamental science about information and information processes not only in technical systems, but also in nature and society. However, unlike cybernetics, which studies systems and management processes, the sphere of research for informatics is any information systems, as well as methods and means for obtaining, storing, transferring and using information. Informatics has only its own problem area, but also its own research methods, the use of which makes it possible to identify, analyze and understand many of the fundamental properties and patterns of natural and social phenomena in the world around us. Informatics is a complex of diverse scientific areas, such as:

• Theoretical computer science - a set of mathematical disciplines that use mathematical methods for constructing and studying models for processing, transmitting and using information;

• social informatics - the science of the processes of informatization of society;

• Biological Informatics - the science of information processes in biological systems

• social cognition - the science of developing the intellectual potential of society.

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