The emergence and stages of the formation of information technology...

The emergence and stages of the formation of information technology

In the process of its development, mankind in any field of activity consistently passed the stages from handicraft to high-tech industrial production. First of all, efforts were made to facilitate physical work, and the information sphere for many years was the lot of mental labor rights and every year required more manpower. The emergence of computers and data transmission networks contributed to the revolutionary processes in the field of information and allowed to move to the industrial level of technologies and tools.

On the basis of information technology, the problem of automation of information processes is solved. Information, as a product of information technology, is largely structured and formed in the form of knowledge. In any subject area, as well as in society as a whole, it stands out as an independent component, an information resource that acquires a material nature.

Society and Information

A distinctive feature of human society is that for a long time the main object of work remained material objects. Influencing them, a man earned himself a livelihood, and for many centuries the task was to increase the muscular capabilities of man through various tools, aggregates and machines. This was aimed at mechanization of production, which began to be intensively introduced at the beginning of the 20th century. The development of human society at almost all stages was based on technological progress. This - and the mastery of fire, and the use of steam engines, and penetration into the secrets of atomic energy, etc. Increased productivity of labor contributed to automation. In the process of forming labor collectives, there was a need to share knowledge. Initially, knowledge was passed orally from generation to generation; the appearance of writing allowed to re-show the accumulated knowledge - to present them in the form of information. It is assumed that there was a time interval of about a million years between the first tools for processing material objects and the means of displaying information images. Thus, the emergence of information is a natural consequence of the development of human society.

Currently, information is one of the most expensive types of resources. This manifests itself in the tendency of a rapid pumping of labor resources from the sphere of material production to the information one. For example, in the US in the late XIX century. more than 95% of the able-bodied population was engaged in manual labor and only less than 5% - work on information processing. Today we see a picture of the ratio of labor resources to the exact opposite. In the 40-ies of the XX century. The extensive factor as a means of overcoming the gap between the needs and possibilities of processing information has exhausted itself. This was the impetus for the creation of new means of processing information - computers and the transition to the intensive development of the information industry.

The creation of an information society is the political, economic and cultural goal of most economic entities. The move towards this goal is stimulated by national strategic programs, development programs and a large number of other initiatives. Thousands of international, national, regional and local projects are being carried out. The formation of the information society is the most attractive and promising direction of activity in today's turbulent times.

The concept of an information society is rather abstract. It has been mentioned for more than 20 years in national programs, such as info-villages in Japan, and telematics in France. Various subjects of the world economy are already at the third stage of the development of the information society. The first concepts were essentially futuristic and focused on information delivery technologies. Then the rapid development of information and communication technologies radically changed the various types of business and services - the "Information Technology Society" appeared. The topics of contemporary discussions are centered around information content, the heart of the information society. Now this is not only a technical or economic problem, but also a cultural and social issue, part of everyday life.

In the process of the movement of the world community towards an economy based on information, telecommunications and information technologies are changing rapidly. In the development of telecommunications increasingly rely on private participation and competition. Information processing plays an increasing role in all sectors of the economy of both developed and developing countries. New means of data compression have been developed. Fiber and wireless technologies are constantly being improved. The cost of communication services is falling so quickly that within the next 20 years, the exchange of information may become almost free of charge. The transition to digital communication technologies leads to a convergence of transmission services, the dissemination of information and other information services, and opens the prospect of global networks accessible through one finger movement. For emerging economies, these changes offer exciting opportunities. New technologies allow countries to overcome various obstacles to development. For example, a distance education system can become a viable complement to its traditional methods. Modern information infrastructure can lead to the "end of geography" and allow isolated states, which are often the poorest, to participate in economic processes. Financing and ownership in the information structure are becoming attractive to the private sector, thus reducing the burden of its financing for the public sector.

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