The internal device of the computer, the System board...

Internal computer device

Structurally the PC consists of a system unit and peripherals connected to it. The system unit is housed in a housing made of metal and plastic. By the method of location and the number of compartments for external devices, the cases of Desktop, Middle-, Mini-, Small-, Big-Tower types differ. The Desktop body is placed horizontally on the table, and all others are vertical.

The most common type of housing for home and office PCs is the Middle-Tower format. It provides at least two compartments for 5 'format devices (CD-ROM, DVD-ROM, etc.) and several internal compartments for 3.5' (hard disk drives) devices. Big-Tower can be used for a powerful workstation or server.

The following are located in the system unit:

• a motherboard or motherboard;

• The processor;

• daughter cards (expansion cards);

• Internal storage;

• power supply;

• Cooling devices.

The most common modern IBM-compatible PCs are manufactured using the ATX form factor, which determines the shape and size of the system board (30.5 x 24.4 cm) , the design and position of the power supply, the electrical characteristics of the power supply. In addition to ATX, smaller versions can be used: Mini-ATX, Micro-ATX, Flex-ATX, etc. (AT, LPX, Mini-LPX, NLX, EATH, Nano-IXT, Micro-BTX, etc.)

Consider next the elements that are placed in the system unit.


The motherboard plays an important role, because the quality of the PC depends on its quality. It connects all electronic components of the computer and ensures their interaction. It hosts many connectors and devices, each of which does not completely determine the capabilities of the PC, but the computer's performance depends on almost any of them. Let's consider some of them.

Chipset (chipset). A chipset of board logic that provides operation of the processor, memory and most I/O interfaces. The chipset's model depends on all the main features of the motherboard: supported processors and types of memory chips, the type of system bus, ports for connecting external devices. Chipsets have many built-in controllers (disk drives, keyboard and mouse, I/O ports, USB and IEEE 1394 buses).

Slot (socket) for installing a processor (one or more). Different for processors of different manufacturers and for different generations of processors (for example, Sockct-LGAl 155, Socket-LGA1156 for Intel processors, Socket AM2, AMZ for AMD processors).

BIOS chip (Basic Input Output System - basic input/output system). It contains a set of programs that provide operation of the main input-output devices, boot programs from the disk drives of the operating system and the POST program (Power on Self-Test), which tests the PC devices when the computer is turned on. Previously, non-erasable memory was used for BIOS chips, now rewritable Flash memory is used.

CMOS memory (Complementary Metal-Oxide-Semiconductor) - memory for snoring the settings of the motherboard (parameters of hard disks, RAM, microprocessor, hours, etc.) and a battery for its power supply.

Slots for memory modules. Different for different types of memory chips.

Also on the motherboard there are slots for installing expansion cards; power connector; connectors for connecting drives and external devices; auxiliary microcircuits and devices.

The largest manufacturer of motherboards is Intel. Most technological and technical innovations for motherboards were introduced by this company. In the mass market, the production of motherboards is handled by companies, Asus, Gigabyte, Supermicro, Biostar, etc.

In recent years, manufacturers are trying to ensure the environmental compatibility of motherboards, implementing economical modes of energy consumption, taking into account the ban on the use of harmful substances in accordance with the European Union directive adopted in 2006.

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