Control principles of automatic control theory
The formation of specific principles of management began in technology. The theory of automatic control was developed, which was subsequently extended to a wider application and called the theory of automatic control. A great achievement of the theory of automatic control are the general principles of control developed in this theory, which are called fundamental and are sufficiently general. These principles are also being applied to management in socio-economic systems.
The main of these principles are as follows:
1. The principle of open, or software, control.
The essence of the principle is that the control is performed using a given algorithm or program.
Conditionally, this control principle is shown in Fig. 2.18, which shows: a device that generates a program or the law of functioning , control object, interference , output result , a device that is usually denoted by a special sign - a circle divided into sectors that generates a set of control actions or detecting the discrepancy between the result and the required result (as in Figure 2.18).
In some cases, the control law generation unit and the control device are combined.
The circuit has the form of an open circuit, in which the main effect is transferred from the input to the output, performing the specified program (the law of functioning), which gave the principle a name. Under this control principle, the ζ • interference can distort the desired . Nevertheless, due to simplicity, this principle is widely used.
According to the open principle, devices for starting a music box, tape recorder and other audio devices, machine tools with program control, conveyor control are built.
The similarity of this principle can be considered the management of the slave's work in the slave society at the initial stage of its development in the case of cruel slave owners who did not take into account the needs of the slave as a person who suppresses his human dignity and compels clearly to carry out the prescribed program.
2. The principle of compensation, or of disturbance management. This principle is also called the management principle of with anticipation.
In this way, a device is used that measures interference and produces compensating effects that correct the control law (Figure 2.19).
A device of this kind is called a compensating device.
The simplest example of such a principle are devices that provide voltage stabilization under DC oscillations. To date, many different compensation mechanisms have been developed in the theory of automatic control, according to the type of which subclasses of devices are singled out and even the principle of compensatory control in accordance with these types of devices is detailed.
This principle is used in enterprise planning: when designing plans, it is taken into account that the productivity of labor depends on the wear and tear of equipment, on the skills of workers, shifts, etc., and when calculating the time for executing planned tasks, appropriate adjustments are made in the form of wear coefficients equipment, shift factors, etc.
With regard to the management of society, we can assume that under the conditions of the feudal system the landowner tries to take into account to some extent the human needs of the serf worker in order to avoid riots or to win the love of serfs, which provided conditions for more effective work.
3. The principle of feedback, or deviation control.
The principle is illustrated in Fig. 2.20. The obtained values are corrected on the basis of the deviation measurement Δy from the required result ytre6, called in automatic control theory setpoint & quot ;.
The concept of feedback is easily illustrated by examples of technical and electronic devices. However, w