THEORETICAL ISSUES OF INFORMATICS
BASICS OF INFORMATICS AND ITS APPENDIX TO PHILOLOGY
After studying the material in this chapter, the student must:
• the history of formation is informative as a special field of scientific knowledge;
• the subject and tasks of informatics;
be able to
• identify basic information technologies and determine the main areas of application of information technology in the professional activities of a philologist;
• constantly improve their information literacy;
• basic concepts and terms of informatics;
• Striving to acquire new knowledge and master new practical skills of using information computer technologies.
The subject and tasks of computer science
Informatics as a special science has acquired a paramount importance in modern society. Its existence has long been a universally recognized fact, and all achievements based on a specific methodological approach unique to this science are gradually becoming the basis for the existence of modern human society, transforming it into a qualitatively new social and economic entity - the global information community. Thanks to the development of informatics as a science, people have learned to solve problems that previously seemed to them unsolvable.
The basis of informatics as a science is its universal ability to form an information model of any given object.
Information model - a formalized representation of information interaction of objects of any complexity, a way of modeling processes, situations, natural or social phenomena, etc.
The United States academician AP Ershov wrote about this fundamental property of computer science: "Informatics as an independent science comes into its own when the so-called information model is built for the studied fragment of the world. The information model is that interface through which the computer science comes into relationship with the private sciences, without merging with them and at the same time not taking them into themselves. " The creation of an information model presupposes the establishment and description by formal means of relations and connections between any information-relevant objects, the creation of a language (languages) for the presentation of these links, the development of algorithms, methods and technologies that support these functions, and the practical use of these models.
Scientific Informatics Apparatus
The scientific core of informatics is referred to the fundamental sciences, since all the basic concepts are of a general scientific nature and are used in many other sciences and activities. Informatics also actively uses knowledge developed in other scientific fields, primarily in theoretical and applied mathematics. Therefore, the scientific computer science includes the following sections:
• Theories of algorithms and automata;
• Information and coding theory;
• The theory of formal languages and grammars;
• Theories of the structures (organization) of data and databases;
• Exploring operations;
• System analysis;
• Statistical analysis;
• Semantic analysis;
• The algebra of logic;
• development of training systems, etc.
An important part of modern theoretical informatics is the development of the foundations for creating artificial intelligence (ie computer models of human behavior). This is one of the most difficult tasks that humanity has ever faced. Today, artificial intelligence is often regarded as a special field of informatics, in which problems are solved at the intersection with psychology, physiology, linguistics and other sciences that could be conditionally designated as human studies. The main directions of developments related to this field are the modeling of reasoning, computer linguistics, machine translation, creation of expert systems, pattern recognition, etc. The success of works in the field of artificial intelligence depends in particular on the solution of such an important applied problem as the creation of intelligent interface systems of interaction of a person with a computer, through which this interaction will be like an interpersonal and will become more effective.
The main directions of the development of modern informatics
In accordance with the needs of social development, the main function of informatics is to develop effective methods and means of converting information and using them in practice in the form of information technologies that can be based only on the achievements of computer science as a special science. In modern society, the range of tasks that informatics is called upon to form has formed the basis for the formation of three basic directions of its development.
The first direction is related to the study of the fundamental properties of the concept "information", its fundamental features as an object and subject of control. The term information (from Latin informatio ) means clarification, information, presentation. Information is a reflection of the real world through information (messages, signals). A message is a form of presentation of information in the form of speech, image, digital data, graphs, tables, voltage changes in the telephone channel, electromagnetic field strength at a certain carrier frequency in the radio and TV channel, etc. In a broad sense, information is a concept related in some way to the exchange of information between people, signals between objects of animate and inanimate nature, and the like.
In the framework of the second direction computer science is considered as a science about the methods and means of collecting, transmitting, storing, presenting, processing and protecting information.
The third direction is formed within the framework of social informatics (economics, sociology, philosophy, philology, psychology and other social sciences) and unites research that allows to form scientific and methodical bases of informatization human activity and information society, creation and development of information and information-control systems for objects of various classes.
In recent years, within the third direction, another independent field of research is being formed, which is defined as the theory and practice of information interaction, ie. interaction of objects, leading to a change in knowledge of at least one of them.
Particularly it should be noted the increasing role of information in modern management. After all, the output produced is the result of social labor and the transferred cost of capital to the same extent as it is accumulated information. In modern production and management of this production, there are labor and capital outlays not related to the use of information that has a number of significant advantages and specific properties: it can be produced, stored and stored, and does not decrease from use (although it may age). From the point of view of economic development, one of the distinctive features of the modern stage of the evolution of social production is that a growing information fund, primarily active information resources, becomes the main source of social wealth, and the main problem of expanding production is the lack of capital, and information , necessary for the use of this capital in the present and future with the greatest success. In the search, processing, preservation and transfer of such information, a significant role is also assigned to specialist philologists.
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