The indication of the division here is the time interval from the moment of receipt of information on the state of the control object until the moment of issuing the control action. The larger the interval, the higher the level (rank) of the element. Management can be carried out in real time with an interval equal to a day, a decade, a month, a quarter, etc. Moreover, the control interval is not chosen arbitrarily, but based on the criteria that determine the stability and efficiency of the entire system.
The sign of division here is the area occupied by the control object. The larger the area of the object, the higher its rank. This attribute is subjective, since not always the area occupied by the object corresponds to its importance, and it can be used in case of similarity of the parameters of elements of the same level.
It is based on the functional dependence (subordination) of the elements of the system. This separation is also subjective, because in this case it is difficult to distinguish the boundaries between the elements of the system.
The division into levels in this case is carried out depending on the effect caused by this or that situation, for example, from damage resulting from an accident or equipment failure.
At present, this kind of hierarchy is very significant in connection with the increased importance of information for management. The basis for the division into levels is the efficiency and the renewability of information. It is through these characteristics that the hierarchy of information is traced through the levels of enterprise management.
The first level stores and processes repeated, frequently updated information, necessary for daily activities, i.e. for operational control. The next level is information more generalized than operational, and used by so often. Information is grouped by functional areas and is used to support the decision-making on production management. At the top level, strategic information for long-term planning is stored and processed. It is characterized by a high degree of generalization, unrepeatability, unpredictability and rare use.
In general, the functional model of the control process is shown in Fig. 1.1. Accounting for information about the management object consists of registration, classification and identification. Based on a variety of mathematical models that describe the real and required state of the object, and the criteria for optimality, they analyze information about the state of the control object. The final model of the projected state of the control object is formed in the form of a plan. Emerging due to external influences -
Fig. 1.1. Functional model of the management process
The deviations from the plan are corrected by comparing the accounting and planning information, the new analysis and the formation of control actions (regulation).
In most cases, in the information analysis of the management process, the passive form of information manifestation, reflecting the properties of the external environment, the control object and the control system itself, is usually considered. However, no less important is the active form of information that causes the state of the managed object to change.
It is customary to distinguish the following qualitatively distinguishable manifestations of information: informing I oc, converting I n, deciding I pr and control I y.
The information about the state of the external environment, the control object and the control system is attributed to the informer. The transformer includes the information contained in the control algorithms. Information of decision-making is a reflection of images and goals on a finite set of decisions. The manager is information that causes a purposeful change in the state of the control object.
In any control system, two information channels can be identified: the target and the working channel. In the target channel, on the basis of information processes, the goal is selected and a decision is taken on the choice of the control action. In the working channel, information is generated, which is implemented by the executive body, carrying out a purposeful change in the state of the control object through real-energy characteristics. The target channel can be located at the same level of the hierarchy with the worker, and at a higher level. In Fig. 1.2 presents the information structure of the management system, where the target and working channels are identified, as well as the main forms of information manifestation.
Fig. 1.2. Information management system structure