Types of scales in marketing research - Information technology in marketing

Types of scales in marketing research

Consider the measuring scales used. Any measurement in marketing research shows that the characteristics of the object are measured, and not the object itself. It is necessary to define properties of characteristics and assign them a quantitative estimate in such a way that they correctly reflect the properties of these characteristics.

There are four types of scales with which the characteristics can be measured, namely: nominal, ordinal, interval and relative.

A nominal scale (title scale) is used in measurements where numbers are assigned to objects or classes of objects only for the purpose of identifying them. For example:

To which sex do you belong ? Female; male.

Your social status ?

• the head of the enterprise;

• Employee leaders;

• Housewives;

• student;

• employees.

As a measure characterizing the main trend or the average value, the statistical mode appears.

Ordinal scale is used to measure when numbers are assigned to data based on a certain order of objects (preference for consumption of certain brands of cigarettes, beer, sweets, etc.). Let, for example, you need to rank the supplier companies according to your preference system. The firm-leader is given the number 1, following the leader - number 2, to the outsider firm - the last number of the compared firms, etc. A median is used as a measure of the average value in the ordinal scale.

Interval scale is used for measurements in which assigned numerical values ​​allow comparisons of the difference between the members of the same row and between different series of data, for example, temperature scale, age scale, alcohol strength scale , consumption of a certain food product per capita. As a measure that characterizes the main tendency of the interval scale, its average value stands out.

A relative scale is required to measure natural or absolute values ​​and is the only scale that uses the zero point. The use of such a scale makes it possible to analyze the situations associated with the correlation of the investigated quantities. The scale can be compressed or stretched using scaling rules. For example, a consumer can consume 2 times more of some products, 1.5 times more often to rest abroad, 3 times more often to change a car, etc. As a measure of the average value, a geometric or harmonic mean is used.

Another kind of scales are the incomparable scales , which are subdivided into continuous and detailed rating scales. When using non-equal scales, respondents apply any non-standard estimates. They do not compare the object to the competitor, but simply give their evaluation to the object.

A continuous rating scale is used to place experts on the evaluated object based on its own conclusions. When using a continuous scale, respondents assess the objects by marking the corresponding point of the segment connecting the extreme values ​​of the criterion (Figure 5.2). Each number of the scale has its own qualitative designation.

How do you rate a product ad ?

Example of a piece of evaluation for advertising a product

Fig. 5.2. Example of an ad valuation fragment:

1 - it's terrible; 2 - unhappy; 3 - disappointed; 4 - in half; 5 - good; 6 - satisfied; 7 - enthusiastically

A detailed rating scale contains numbers and a brief description associated with each category of relation to the research object. The arrangement of the categories on the scale is arranged in a certain order. For one-dimensional scaling methods characteristic restriction of one, most often emotional, component of marketing research.

Likert-scale - the type of the detailed scale (Figure 5.3). This scale is used for expert evaluation of marketing phenomena. Usually each point of the scale has five categories for a response from the "absolute disagreement" to totally agree & quot ;. For the marketing analysis each claim is assigned the number of points from -2 to +2 or from 1 to 5. The analysis of individual points (profile analysis) with the calculation of the results is analyzed.

Statement: Advertising cigarettes and alcohol - this is harmful to United Statess!

Likert-scale example

Fig. 5.3. Likert-scale example

By summarizing the results of the required number of such questions, a conclusion is made about the attitude of the person questioned to the subject of the study.

A variation of the detailed scale is the semantic differential, i.e. a seven-point scale with opposite marks at the extreme points (Table 5.2). The data obtained are analyzed using profile analysis, when average or median values ​​are calculated for each rating scale and then compared by plotting or statistical analysis.

Table 5.2

Semantic differential scale for representing consumers and products


Digital rating (1-7 points)















Not Modern



The scale of the semantic differential - the method of evaluating the strengths and weaknesses of a product, an enterprise through a paired comparison. It is used to compare brands, products, advertising, company image, etc.

Rank-Rating Scales are some combination of basic scales. The most well-known scale directly linking a particular state of research with a numerical value is called a rating scale. The rank-rating scales require the respondent to establish a rating of a set of objects in accordance with some criterion. There are the following types of rating scales:

graphic - the respondent must select a point on the graph corresponding to its relation to the object of the study;

point - the respondent chooses a response from a limited number of ordinal categories.

For example, the scale of the Juster reflects the intention to make a purchase:

10 - sure, almost sure (99 out of 100);

9 - almost sure (90 out of 100);

8 - very possible (80 out of 100);

7 - possible (70 of 100);

6 is a good opportunity (60 out of 100);

5 - a pretty good opportunity (50 out of 100);

4 - sufficient opportunity (40 out of 100);

3 - some possibility (30 out of 100);

2 - an insignificant possibility (20 out of 100);

1 - very insignificant possibility (10 out of 100);

0 - none (1 of 100).

If 30% answered above paragraph 5, then the new product can be brought to the market.

Another variety is:

percent scale - characterizes the degree of satisfaction with the acquisition or possession of an object:

100% 90% 80% 70% 60% 50% 40% 30% 20% 10% 0%;

the scale of smiling faces :


ranked scale - the respondent compares one position with others and ranks them, for example, K1 & gt; K 4 & gt; K 8

Pairwise comparison scale - the respondent is asked to choose one of two positions in the group of any criteria;

scales of the constant sum - of the respondent are asked to divide a certain amount (100) among two or more characteristics in terms of importance from the respondent's point of view between two or more objects (Table 5.3).

Table 5.3

Example of a constant amount scale

































With the help of these scales, it is possible to locate the place of each trait under consideration on a variety of criteria for marketing evaluation of the phenomenon under consideration.

thematic pictures

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