The concept of vector graphics
Vector Graphics is a way of representing objects and images in computer graphics based on the use of elementary geometric objects (Figure 8.1). Vector graphics objects are graphical representations of mathematical functions.
Fig. 8.1. Example of a vector drawing
Vector graphics represent an image as a set of simple geometric shapes, graphic primitives. Graphic primitives include such simple figures as points, segments, lines, arcs, circles and ellipses, squares and rectangles, ovals and circles, and, as a general case, curves of some order. Also, more complex shapes are used, for example, broken lines, curvilinear segments (in the computer graphics for their designation is the general term "curve"), various polygons, text, etc.
Bitmap the image can be viewed as a primitive object behaving like a rectangle.
In general, any graphic primitive is a line for which you can specify a certain color (up to transparent), thickness and appearance (for example, solid, dashed, dot-dash, etc.). If the line is closed, then for such a graphic object you can set and change the color of the inner area, the so-called fill of the object. You can use any combination of colors to do this.
Using graphic primitives of different shapes and colors, varying their relative positioning, you can create fairly complex drawings. This process resembles the technique of creating applications - the image is made up of separate fragments of different shapes and colors.
When playing overlapping objects, their order is important.
Storing vector images
Vector drawing is stored as a set of coordinates, vectors and other numbers characterizing a set of primitives.
Since each graphic primitive can be described mathematically in the form of simple formulas, it takes very little space to store a vector image, and the size of the image does not affect the file size. Indeed, in order to save a rectangle in a vector image file, only the following parameters must be saved: the coordinates of two opposite vertices, the color of the line, its thickness and type (in the case of a contour), fill color (if the rectangle is opaque). Thus, when you save rectangles of different sizes and colors, the file size will be the same.
To create an image of the vector format displayed on the raster device, converters, software or hardware (built-in graphics card) are used.
Editing vector images, vector operations
Image in vector format gives room for editing. The image can be scaled without loss, rotated, deformed. Three-dimensional objects and spaces in vector graphics are easier to simulate than in raster. Each such transformation is performed as follows: the old image (or fragment) is erased, and a new one is constructed instead. The mathematical description of the vector pattern remains the same, only the values of some variables, for example, the coefficients, change.
Vector operations. Vector graphic editors, as a rule, represent the ability to rotate, move, reflect, stretch, tilt, deform, perform mapping into themselves, combine primitives into more complex objects.
More sophisticated transformations include union, addition, intersection, etc.
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