Windows operating system
Windows operating system graphical interface
The graphical interface of the Windows operating system (English, windows - windows) offers visual images of the elements on the screen located in the windows for interaction with the user. Everything happens with a window, in a window or with an object icon (device, file). In the form of windows, folders and programs are designed, standardized and in many ways identical solutions for the structure of windows, techniques for working in the windows of different programs and commands. You can adjust the colors, font, sizes of windows and icons.
When you turn on the computer with the Windows operating system installed, the so-called Desktop appears on the monitor screen.
Desktop is the area of the Windows operating system screen (Figure 4.5), where graphical controls are displayed: windows for folders, programs, operating system messages, dialog boxes, icons. The graphical interface allows you to control them as real objects: move, align, shuffle, like on a real table, select.
On the Desktop or in the Start menu, icons for the system objects My Computer, Network Neighborhood and system folders Trash, My Documents are located part of Windows. The background image is specified by the image of the graphic file stored in the Windows folder. The user places icons on the desktop for programs, documents, or their shortcuts.
The Windows Mobile Mouse. The Windows GUI uses the mouse as its pointing device. Moving the mouse synchronously (simultaneously) moves the mouse pointer (cursor) on the screen.
The mouse pointer is a pointer of objects on the screen, moved by the mouse. The type of the pointer depends on the situation or object:
Fig. 4.5. Windows Desktop
• the inclined arrow is ready to select the object and give the command;
• hourglass warn that the operating system or program is busy, asks to wait;
• the bidirectional arrow of the form ↔ or ↨ shows the border (frame) of the object and the readiness to capture it;
• the four-headed arrow appears when you hover the cursor over the graphic object and shows the readiness to move it;
• The vertical separator is used to highlight the text, and after clicking the mouse button leaves a pulsating cursor in the text for work.
Pointing with the mouse is not a command, but the approach To her. The action that the mouse allows to do is done at the point of the screen where the mouse pointer is located and depends on where it showed how the mouse button was pressed.
Move the pointer around the screen - move the mouse, ns pressing all the buttons.
Select object and give the command - this means to move the mouse pointer, left-click once or twice. Clicking can be done with the left or right button, and several times with a very short interval between clicks.
Capture and move with a hook - move the mouse pointer to the selected object, click the left mouse button, drag with the click of the button and throw in the right place.
Calling the list of context commands - clicking on the object with the right mouse button in unclear situations or where you want to act faster. A contextual list of commands is proposed for the object: Desktop, file or several selected files, the contents of the folder window, the selected text, picture, etc.
Window in the Windows operating system
The user's dialog with the Windows operating system is through the windows, through the window interface.
Window in Windows is a bordered area of the screen with a title bar, control buttons and a display and text field. Depending on the purpose, the following windows are available: interaction with the operating system and the program; management, commands and messages; Work with objects (text, pictures, sound, video and settings). The command and message window is usually a fixed size, and the window and program window size can be changed using the mouse.
System folder windows My Documents, Recycle Bin, Search Results are a work tool. The System Object Window The Control Panel is for configuring the Screen, Keyboard, Printer, Mouse , and other objects
Hierarchically subordinate structures are indicated by signs: the device (disk) folder opens subordinate folders with files (Figure 4.6). Folder window with files - graphical representation of the directory, contains the showcase icons (or list) of subordinate folders and files.
The program window (Windows application) contains the program icon, program name and file name in the title.
Command Dialog Box - auxiliary window containing buttons and other controls, fields for setting the parameters for executing the command. It opens after selecting a command in the menu and the button bar of the program or selecting a task in the folder window.
Message - a text box for notifications about events or upcoming events that arrives to the user from the operating system or the executable program. The message is waiting for the user to respond to the read
Fig. 4.6. My Computer folder window
( OK ) or select an option ( Yes, No, Cancel), for example when saving a file.
Windows window elements. The title bar is the name of the open folder, the document (file) or the name of the running program. You can move the window around the screen by grabbing the title bar of the window with the mouse pointer.
The system icon in the upper left corner of the window at the click of a mouse opens a menu containing a list of commands that allow you to manage the size and location of the window on the desktop: restore, move, size, collapse, The
Control buttons in the upper-right corner of the Windows window duplicate the three main commands of the service menu. The button with a cross x closes the window completely. The window can be closed from the keyboard by simultaneously pressing two keys Alt + F4.
The button for switching the window mode has the form of one or two frames. When the program window is normal (incomplete screen), this button has the appearance of one frame and is ready to give the command Expand the window (make fullscreen) . When the window is full-screen, the button has the form of two frames and is ready to give the command Minimize to window - to reduce the full-screen window to normal, to simultaneously see part of the Desktop and others windows.
A button with a dash gives the Collapse window command to the taskbar in a rectangular button with the icon and name of the minimized window. Collapsing the window frees the Desktop without closing the window completely. If you click the minimized button on the taskbar, the window will be restored to its original size.
Some windows contain a button? to get contextual help.
Change the position, size of windows and move between windows. The full-screen window of the folder and the downloaded program occupies the entire screen area.
The mutual location of several open windows can be arranged. Right-clicking on the taskbar brings up a menu of window control commands: arrange the open windows in a cascade (Figure 4.7), from top to bottom (one above the other), from left to right (side by side). Window cascade - the location of the windows one after the other, when the headings of each window are visible.
The active window of the folder or program is in the foreground of the screen, the top bar with the title has
Fig. 4.7. Desktop layout options
bright color, for the rest, inactive windows - a dubbed heading. Commands entered by the user are processed by the active window, it seems to be pulled out from under the bale of other windows, nothing blocks it.
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