Until 1958 when the construction industry started to be formulated following rules, development businesses had suffered an unhealthy reputation credited to wrong techniques of the past. The engineering industry was called an part of illegality and corruption. Accordingly, it is not any exaggeration to say that for Koreas structure industry, the past six years were seen as a a conflict against illegality and corruption. Ironically, the response to this was the benefits of the American type of construction system. In addition, it is distinctive that competition has been unveiled for construction project bidding. To be sure, there were limitations in rooting out illegality and problem. Through these initiatives, however, the country could establish a modernized delivering system for engineering projects over the year. Additionally, it isn't a great deal to say that insurance plan and system were formulated. In meanwhile, large-scale construction injuries frequently occurred credited to dishonest work, that will happen in the process of industrialization. In April 2002, the South Korea authorities announced that it'll work more closely with non-governmental actors in the fight corruption. The government procurement agency released the benefits of an ombudsman system and a clean procurement committee in order to break ties between the government and its own contractors. The problem law also proven an anti problem commission, with a particular mandate to research cases relating high rank representatives. Before the commission rate premiered in January 2002, however, its first chairman resigned because of his suspected participation in a significant corruption. Like this, corruption is occurring by individual selfishness. There have been many mishaps through human mistakes and misdeeds. Sampoong Office Store is one of the samples.
On 29 June 1995, a section store building in Seoul suddenly collapsed. It was only five years old and killed 502 people and injured 937 people. The structural collapse of the Sampoong Division Store was not an isolated deviation but a clear omen of deeper problems within society. In the Sampoong collapse, bribery of inspectors was rampant. Nobody raised any alarm whenever a huge, unauthorized air-conditioner was erected on the top of the building which caused enormous breaks in the surfaces. A probe revealed that the buildings owners sacked contractors who acquired complained that designed design changes were unsafe. The new builder, a subsidiary of the store, possessed no objections. On this accident, at the same time, South Koreas engineering industry had been attacked by man-made disasters even before the Sampoong Department Store tragedy. With this paper, the main reasons of the collapse and analysis of the collapse will be briefly described.
The Sampoong building acquired two wings, with one housing the team store and the other sports activities and leisure facilities. The wing that collapsed was the one housing the division store. It was built by Sampoong Engineering and Industry Company and completed in November 1989. An addition to the building was completed in Oct 1994. The building housed 556 departments with 681 employees. It stood 27. 6 meters high and sat on a 29, 008-square-meter. The four underground flooring consisted of a parking place and an electricity control room. Three of the collapsed buildings flooring surfaces which comprised the office store was managed by Sampoong Structure Company whose engineering ranks 858th among the nations construction firms.
If it was careful, the warning signs that could have avoided the collapse of the Sampoong Section Store came as early as 15days before the accident. In those days, a restaurateur on the fifth floor reported a split on the roof of the building to management. But, managements response was lukewarm, and management had taken no action. Then, 5 days and nights before, a customer who had inserted the same restaurant to get something to consume after some regular weekend shopping, was showered with a water leak from the ceiling of the restaurant. Three times before the collapse, a written report of a gas drip again travelled unheeded by the office store management.
On the day of the collapse, June 29, the symptoms that should have tripped alarm bells came out before opening time in the restaurants on the fifth floor. Around 9:30 a. m. , the floor of the restaurant damaged open just a bit. An environmental specialist reported the occurrence to the management. Top professionals of the team store ended by one hour later, mumbling something about seeking professional analysis. Between 11a. m to 12p. m, neighbouring restaurants were experiencing drinking water leaks from ceilings and breaks in the flooring surfaces. Only at this point do the management close off the fifth floor, while the other floors prolonged with business as common. Sometimes after 1 p. m. , a break down of air-con and gas services as well as a power failure happened throughout the team store. The management found around 3 p. m. for a crisis assembly without notifying the employees and buyers of the situation. When things were at their worst, the professionals of the team management kept the building, as a result departing many employees and buyers still inside. At 6p. m. on 29 June, the centre of the building collapsed, similar to a handled implosion, in 20 secs. Customers were concentrated in the basement and in the fifth floor restaurant. The customers and employees possessed no time to flee. Some survivors were found in the wreckage, and one was brought out 17 days following the collapse. The overall death toll was 502.
The main issues attended to in this newspaper are corruption, regular design change and maintenance repair in South Korea. The first section of this newspaper will examine problem in the collapse of the Sampoong Division Store. This article was delivered by Seoul Region Prosecutors Office, entitled The Final White Book of Learning the Real Truth of the Collapse of the Sampoong Team Store. The general public was outraged. In particular, the news that the older executives experienced fled the building without warning others was troubling. The statement on the collapse, as well as previous structural and structure failures, advised a widespread design of problem in the countrys engineering business. A government study of high-rise structures found 14% were unsafe and needed to be rebuilt, 84% required repairs, in support of 2% met standards. Joon Lee, the chairman of Sampoong, and his son Han-Sang Lee, were convicted and sent to prison for 10 and half years and 7 years, respectively. Twelve local building officials were found guilty of taking bribes of approximately $17, 000 for approving changes and providing a provisional use license. The reason for the Sampoong collapse, then, had not been a technical issue up to outright scams. The Korean engineering industry, protected by government regulation from outside competition, experienced become complacent. Bribes were used to get around the usual federal government checks and balances that serve to safeguard public security.
Relationship problem between your architects and builders
In the design planning process, romance and communication between architectural designers and structural designers are essential. Generally, if their relationship and communication are in discord some development works, it can bring out accidents such as Sampoong Department Store collapse. This paragraph begins by laying out the theoretical measurements of the research and looks at how design problems occurred in this collapse. Lately, the subject of the look quality has become one of the top issues in the home construction industry. However, important design processes are made by judgement of the architect minus the rational communication and information showing among the list of related individuals. Therefore, the aim of this research advises the constitution plan of design problem management system not only for systematizing types about the design error in structure projects also for analyzing the primary factors of design error to embody the real condition of trouble between architects and builders. Normally, in South Korea, contractors think know-how is more important but architects feel that beauty of fine art and quality what company ordered, tend to be more important so that there have been insufficient communication of information and a slim sense between architects and contractors.
Relationship and communication problem between architectural designers and Structural designers
Generally, design drawings are sent out, such as architectural design drawing, structural design pulling, mechanical center design pulling, electric facility design pulling and anatomist design pulling. Structural calculations need to be correct in order to guarantee the safety of the building and structural design pulling with structural calculations need to be written exactly and used on-site. Mechanised service and electric facility design drafts are written taking into consideration the calculations that have been reviewed beforehand about facility capacity or requirements in line with the structure computations in the framework design drawings which include the safety of the building and expectations. Along the way of structural design planning which influenced the most crucial reason of the collapse, architectural creator and structural designers made a decision the scale of your building, reviews, appearance and used in the early architecture plan and then on a basic framework plan like pitch of columns or structure style. The architectural designer writes the architectural design draft first, and the structure designer carries out structure computations according to all conditions given in the architecture blueprint which the architectural designer published. In many cases, however, architectural designers disperse structural design drafts which can be calculations created by structural designers. As the result, structural designers will vary with structural draft authors, so that structural designers design can be altered by writers who could make fatal errors. Within this accident, it the partnership and communication between architectural designers (architect) and structural designers (structural experts) was not enough, and their communication was only call and memoranda, in order that they hadn't exchanged information. Thus, structural computations, structural drafts and development drafts were different.
There were many structural and architectural problems in the Sampoong Team Store collapse. This paragraph will identify problems useful change and chiseled slab systems in the issues. Firstly, development of the Sampoong Division Store was a flat slab system. The smooth slab system can be defined as a structure method that develops securely several columns proven in top of the part within the building. However, the weak point of the system is many columns. So, this flat slab system is insufficient to department store buildings because if there are several columns in the building, the area will be small. So, structural designers removed stop walls for the intended purpose of making huge clearances to sell products and punched a passing for an escalator. Also, size and form of uplift column was altered. In level slab system, the column is vital but structural designers of Sampoong Office Store possessed neglected design insert calculus. In addition, even although fifth floor was made, column size was lessened 25% (79cm to 58cm) for appearance and even columns located close to the escalator were lessened more.
Secondly, the use of the Sampoong Section Store was four experiences office building in the beginning and this building was approved as a four reviews building. However, owners of the building wanted to change to a section store building and the owners known it to Woosung Engineering Company. Constructors and managers of Woosung Co. opposed that since it needed more columns and thicker columns. Thereupon, the head of the Sampoong group transformed Construction Company to own Sampoong Construction Company. Lastly, the five reviews Sampoong Department Store were built without reinforcement of uplift columns by the business. By far the most serious problem was the fifth floor. The fifth floor was the restaurant area and the interior was composed of a Korean floor heater for a luxury Korean traditional restaurant so that, 30cm concrete was added for the Korean floor water heater. Also, heavy kitchen equipment was needed. As the result, the complete building collapsed when these added tons damaged columns.
This paragraph points out the maintenance of collapse of the Sampoong Section store. Sampoong made significant changes to the composition. The main was the transformation of the original use as an office stop to that of the team store. Other changes included changing top of the floor from a roller-skating rink to a normal Korean restaurant. Stricter standards needed to be met for open fire, air-con and evacuation. But the structure apparently found all building code requirements, the modified design was radically different from the original. This accident was a man-made disaster that the government official allowed haughty entrepreneur who presented blind money as a result and the building company built it.
The building work of Sampoong Section store was started on July 1987 and opened up on Dec 1st 1989 with Short term Use Permit and controlled for 5 years. Unlike a normal building framework using beam and column, its framework system uses Toned Slab structure so the floor slab helps the column alone with no beam. In a set Slab structure, one column can stand the same amount of stress so that the collapse of 1 column can cause progressive collapse which may be them the entire building. Investigating the present state of collapse was analyzed minutely and based on this analysis, the design, construction work, and maintenance of this building was found out as the direct and indirect reason behind collapse.
As an outcome, the collapse of this building was brought from a flaw in design, unreliable construction work, and maintenance problems getting together with each other for long-term. A brief overview is the following. Firstly, the the one which influenced collapse the most is the maintenance problem. Changing design and use, without any approval, triggering additional overweight to be added and also chopping structures left the whole building framework with low strength. Secondly, along the way of development work, managing the task and superintendence was negligent which brought on part of the collapse. Thirdly, inappropriate construction and structure plan caused progressive collapse. Moreover, neglecting safety medical diagnosis on the long term breaks and sinking process and insufficient managing of essential moments like right before the collapse brought about a disastrous incident. Finally, those causes, which continued for 5 years, gave no security, and by the end, surrounding the fifth floor, the roof covering slab was damaged and the adjoining slab damaged, which caused progressive collapse.
A building can maintain safe conditions through fine design, development work/supervision and appropriate maintenance. However, in case a domestic construction system does not include a composition expert who sets safety first any place in the procedure of design, development work/supervision and maintenance, there will be major problems. According to the regulation for architect, article 4 clause 1 and clause 2, creating and guidance of construction can only just be done by an architect, and blocks the composition expert from creating and supervising the building from the beginning. In addition, the law for architect article 2 clause 2 state governments that composition expert has subordinate romance with architect, so that composition expert is not at the position where he can take in charge of the safeness.
Such something cannot be within developed countries except in Korea. For example, America will not limit the engineering right to either architect or composition expert and Germany offers right to design structure and then framework expert. Also, Japan and Singapore framework expert manages composition design. Especially in Germany and other European union, client or representative picks 'protection coordinator who will take charge of every process from starting to the end, such as consulting and superintendence.
To look at design, engineering work/guidance and maintenance of Sampoong department store closely, framework expert was never in the liable position so that he didn't finish his use responsibility. Moreover, the current domestic system experienced no coordinator who could explain faulty framework design and engineering so that an architect who was responsible for construction asked the structure expert only for structural computations and used them on the framework structure. When use and design were evolved, the architect only asked the structure expert orally or in memo form rather than with any formal document. It seemed that structure expert was officially only in an associate position which made it harder to require formal documents and the structural expert also did not have any responsibility to be responsible for the composition problem since they are only an assistant.
Recently constructions with size over fixed standard or for special needs are required to have affixing a seal of framework expert on the composition layout. However this is only the action of affixing a seal from the structural expert, it does not mean that they may be responsible for engineering like in other developed countries. In Korea, the current system does not have any way to confirm the faulty safe the issues from in the process of design, agreement, and development/supervision like Germany or EU. Within the deliberation for a Structure Permit, structure field is completed but its only 10 or 20 minutes which is impossible time to point out any problem in the framework and examine a whole complex design perfectly so that the Construction Permit is merely a formal record to avoid responsibility.
In summary, although common administrative polices should be softened to be able to solve hassle of folks and the vitalization of market, strengthening the regulations to safeguard the nation and their property is a worldwide trend. To consider this under consideration, experts who are able to look after their use responsibility and specialty is vital and needed on every part of the procedure of design, development/supervision, and maintenance in order to prevent the reappearance of such a tragedy like the collapse of the Sampoong office store.
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