In the construction industry, projects can be delayed among large numbers of causes. There are different type and categories of delays found on construction Projects. Delay has major effect on completion cost and time of construction Project. Delays can be minimized if indeed they were identifying causes. Knowing the cause of any particular delay in a construction project would help avoiding the same.
Even though with different types of studies have been completed to recognize the factors influence the causes of delays, since the problems are quite related to the studies need to give attention to specific geographical area, or region in Malaysia. A major appreciation of the Malaysia construction industry is because of the growing rate of delays in project delivery.
In Malaysia most public work projects, including any construction projects under government authority or under privacy are awarded over a competitive basis using the original approach. The consultants and contractors are engaged in separate contracts. The contractors commonly would be involved until the whole project have been completed
1. 3 Aim and objective of study
1. 3. 1 Aim
To investigate delays pertaining in construction projects in Malaysia
1. 3. 2 Objective
To identify the major causes of delays in construction project;
To identify the consequences of delays in construction project; and
To identify the techniques of minimizing construction delays.
1. 4 Background of the study
Construction delay is major problems frequent occur in the construction industry. Delays adversely impact on project stakeholders including owners, design professionals, construction professionals, purchaser and more. The main objectives of construction projects are cost, time, quality and safety numerous
According to Assaf, et al. (1995) "mentioned the main causes in large building construction projects in Saudi Arabia which included approval of shop drawings, delays in payment to contractors and the resulting cash problems during construction, design changes, conflict in work schedules of subcontractors, slow decision making and executive bureaucracy in owner's organizations, design errors, labor shortage and inadequate labor skill. " Make reference to factors behind delay in Saudi Arabia, the major parties to lead the delay happen such as client and contractor. Due to client always change the design of creating. Besides that, late responds and poor project management team and also delay pay month payment to the contractor by client. On the other hand, contactor due to not enough worker during work progress and some argument with sub-contractor.
According to Ogunlana, et al. (1996) "studied the delays in building project in Thailand, for example of problem faced by the developing economies. They figured the issues of the construction industry in developing economies can be nested in three layers: problem of shortages or inadequacies in industry infrastructure, mainly way to obtain resources; problems caused by clients and consultants; and problems caused by incompetence of contractors. " Construction in Thailand because some parties fault due to project delay such as contractor consultant and. During construction stage your client because of changing certain part of design and insufficient experience could not solve the situation immediately. Besides client, designer is one of the parties because of own fault which is give unclear drawing to the contractor due to lack in experience. For the hand, the other parties which is contractor because of facing in poor management team, improper planning and scheduling and also inadequacy of site inspection.
According to Chan and Kumaraswamy (1996) "surveyed and classified the causes of construction delays in Hongkong as seen by clients, contractor and consultants, and examined the factors affecting productivity. The results with their research indicate that the five principal and common causes of delays are: poor site management and supervision; unforeseen ground condition; low speed of decision making involving all projects team; client initiated variations; and necessary variation of works. " Construction delay in Hongkong, the parties related to delay project include client, consultants, contractor and some relevant party. Factor to related delay by client such as client frequent delay make payment to contractor and also suffer in financial problem. Besides client, designer because of insufficient experience always make mistake in drawing and late process design document. Alternatively, factor to cause contractor delay project such as lack of experience in project team and also poor site management and supervisions. Other than that, material is also one of the complexities. During construction stages, material shortage and material changes to cause project delay.
Identified the effects of delays in construction projects have been undertaken by some researchers. According to AIbinu and Jagboro (2002), "identified the six ramifications of delays were time overrun, cost overrun, dispute, arbitration, total abandonment, and litigation. The results of the studied about the consequences of construction delays on project delivery in Nigerian construction industry, shows time overrun and cost overrun were the frequent effects of delays in construction projects. " In construction industry, the result of project delay because of their time and cost overrun. In this example, a few of the faults parties need to take responsibility to pay the loss and expense to prospects parties suffer in damage.
Several studies have been studied and recommended the methods of minimizing delays in construction projects. Nguyen, et al (2004), "identified five critical success factors could be applied to reduce the consequences of delays includes: competent project manager; sufficient funding until project completion; multidisciplinary/competent project team; commitment to projects; and availability of resources. " To minimizing the project delay during the construction stage, to begin with a client needs to hire an event project manager. Once the condition of delay happen, the project manager can solve immediately. Besides that, the project team member should talk to other team member.
Aibinu and Jagboro (2002) in their study also identified two methods to reduce or if possible eliminate time overrun were acceleration of site activities, and contingency allowance. The contractor must take full responsibility during work progress. Once contractor discovered actual work progress aren't similar with estimate and he must take some action to avoid the project delay such as involve some additional worker.
According to Odeh and Battaineh (2002) "recommended four methods includes: developing human resources in the construction industry through proper training and classification of craftsman; adopting a fresh approach to contract award procedure giving less weight to prices and more excess weight to the functions and past performance of contractors; and adopting new approaches to contracting, such as design-build and construction management (CM) kind of contracts. "
1. 5 Scope of the Study
The scope of the research will focus on literature review and a questionnaire. Projects investigate in this research included school building, church, office, hospital, communication facilities and etc. The survey will conduct in Malaysia.
The questionnaire survey will design based on factors identify from literature review that contributed to causes of delays, ramifications of delays and solutions to minimize delays. A questionnaire will developed to evaluate the perceptions of contractors and consultants of the relative importance of the complexities and the consequences of construction delays. The developed survey questionnaire will distributed to the prospective respondent in Malaysia.
1. 6 Outline methodology
Stage 1: Literature review
The review of literature has provided useful information predicated on the causes, effects, reactions and possible solution related to the problems delay project in construction industries.
Stage 2: Pilot study
Data collection will take the form of your structured postal questionnaire. However, an initial pilot study will be conducted to test the validity of the questionnaire through in-depth interviews with three contract manager.
Stage 3: Main survey questionnaire and questionnaire go through with interview.
The feedback from the pilot study should assist in finalizing the questionnaire and prepare the bottom for main survey. The questions with centre around the areas mentioned in the aforementioned objectives. To be able to obtain a high level of response, a multi-option format will be designed and limited by about 30 question and 10 questions that are proceed through with interview. Open questions are considered to be inappropriate as they would required the respondents to formulate an answer which needs lengthier input and will therefore become more difficult to analyze.
Stage 4: Analyzing the postal and interview questionnaire
This stage is analysis of the questionnaire to determine the degree of agreement or disagreement by the respondents to each question within the questionnaire by counting the number of respondents who answer favorably or unfavorably. Besides that, analyze the questions which is done by interview to determine how the contractor to solve the delaying problem of project.
Stage 5: Writing the study report
The stage involves writing up this content of the dissertation and really should cover the chapter proposed in the next section.
Chapter 1 - Introduction
Chapter 2 - Literature review
Chapter 3 - Research design and method of analysis
Chapter 4: - Analysis of the effect and discussion
Chapter 5: - Conclusion and future study evidence
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