The decision to get starts with your choice to build or even to produce depending on type of product a business produces. The development industry's product is a tangible composition that can either be domestic house, school, medical center, office building, entertainment center, sport complex, or highways, bridges, dams, sewers, railways, air-port runways, tube lines, etc. To produce the end result of the effort to create, different resources are essential by an organization. These resources are manpower, money, machineries, & most importantly material. It is estimated that 60-70 percent of the project immediate costs accounts for material cost. Therefore materials procurement is an important aspect of each structure work, and well worth planning prior when the decision to construct begins. Planning material procurement starts with figuring out and estimating the amount of materials needed, analyzing the option of the materials in market, selecting the reliable source for acquiring the material, and responding to questions on the condition of travel and storage space of the materials on site throughout the construction amount of the project. That is to avoid unwanted or extra cost incurred because of this of poor material management process.
Material management function starts off from office where likely constraints associated with all sorts of resource needed to build the possible project can be sorted out. It further extends to engineering site where sensible implementation of the ideas and schedules developed through the initial planning level of the material procurement is necessary. Construction site structure of non permanent facilities such as office, staff canteen, security shed, material stores, position of crane, and momentary walkways largely influences the movement of staff and material delivery vehicles. And the proposed position of long lasting structures within the task site can't be influenced because of momentary facilities. This put difficult on the task supervisor who must research the activities more likely to happen on site and provide solution to predicted risk and inconveniences that comes up scheduled to poor layout of site temporary facilities. With careful setting of non permanent site facilities, material delivery can be easier, incident can be reduced, access to materials of work can be faster and ultimately the quickness of construction process can be increased.
2. 0 Books review on materials management
The procurement of materials of work 's the reason for which an organization should maintain a reliable material procurement division. The principal function of the office is to plan the levels of the materials needed at a particular time, identify the foundation of purchasing the materials and initiate the process, planning of inventory and control, ensures quality control measures are taken, and maintain a steady flow of material to avoid scarcity during the development period. Other function of the division includes coding and classification of materials, retaining good record of the activity of material right from delivery to safe-keeping and use, and watching the current tendencies in purchase system and market availability of development materials.
2. 1 The different parts of Material Management
Contractors are bound to cut expenditures and make even more earnings if enough attention is given to material and equipment planning, arranging and control. Therefore profitable contracting requires reasonable material management. It is found that bout 60-70 percent of the project immediate cost is incurred on material and equipment. Development projects are undertaken to finish within a particular time, cost, and quality. To the end amount of people, materials, machineries and equipment are needed collectively to take on the individual activities that mutually make up the complete project. Although jobs are categorized into two; Infrastructure and Building projects both requires a common resource with respect to the size and complexity of the task. On a big building job such as multi-storey building as well as highways building, the typified equipment used are machine excavators, heavy bull dozer and variety of trucks for carting away surplus excavated material, and moving aggregates, cement, blocks, reinforcement pubs, timber, etc. to the task site. Other materials used in building type project are sanitary devices, surface coatings such as marble, granite, ceramic tiles, plaster mother board, paints, etc. Materials management is composed of series of activities that must be collectively identified, designed, organized, implemented, and watched and controlled. These are:-
Handling and Transportation
Receiving and Inspection
Storage and Warehousing.
Purchasing: When the need for material arises, the materials procurement or purchasing division makes an inventory of the material, sometimes refer to as Material Indent and send to the preferred supplier. This is termed as Purchase order/ Materials Enquiry. First, the supplier's quotation had been received and researched by the purchasing section.
It is also the sole responsibility of the division to work out price with suppliers and select the most dependable one in conditions of quality of product, delivery time, and lowest purchase cost. Upon getting purchase order from the company, the supplier provides all the materials in the correct variety and quality before carrying to the company who receives the products in his own store. The materials provided to the builder are often associated with consignment notes indicating the types and quantity of the material loaded, and usually this happen within a short while having confirming before positioning the order that the materials needed are available in the supplier's store. However in some cases, the contractor must follow up order particularly if time is from the project. This is known as Expediting by Company. Expediting can be carried out through phone calls, email, fax or any means of communication available.
Material Handling and Vehicles: Troubles can be came across with handling and carrying materials to the task site especially large delicate materials such as interior a glass partitions. Handling materials should start from the point of uploading onto transporting vehicle through maneuvering of the vehicle around busy area to obtain to reach the project site, and downloading and storage space. It further reaches proper positioning in the store till the period when the material can be contained into structure or component. Materials handling and transport procedures aren't limited to fragile items only. Long and heavy materials such as material column, galvanized material angle flat iron for metallic trusses, reinforcement pubs, precast concrete components, bricks/blocks and cement totes are almost first collection items needed onsite, and deserves careful handling both offsite and onsite. Some materials applicable to a particular trade may be required at the same time when other trades are active working. For instance aggregates can reach the project site when metal fixers/iron benders are fabricating reinforcement bars. As well as the truck may need to pass across the iron staff before reaching the chosen point of delivery. To avoid such an event, the planners should take consideration of all materials apt to be required within the time other trade employees are working. This ensures smooth interaction between workers of different professionalism onsite.
Receiving and Inspection: Various kinds of materials of work are being sent on site preceding to structure work start or as the work proceeds. Some materials are fragile such as wine glass panel, asbestos, ceiling plank, wooden and cheap door sections etc. while some are of metallic or light weight aluminum mother nature e. g. door and window frames, steel columns, reinforcement pubs, burglar facts etc. Other materials that are straight tipped onsite include aggregates, bricks/blocks, and concrete. Whatever type of materials needed onsite must be received and ascertained by site manager or the clerk of work upon introduction of delivery. Materials are prone to breakage and or destruction in the cause of transportation. Similarly lack can occur mistakenly as materials are being published from the supplier's store. However, as a precaution to ensure quality control, proper record of the amount of materials received and inspection of the qualities is essential. This ensures security of expenditure since lack and busted items are actually wastage. Efficient material record also documents the material movements in and out of store for use. It shows the material vacation spot from the store including date and personal of the acquiring person e. g. masonry foreman. Three important documents received by the store officer are copy of purchase order from the purchasing section, supplier's advice report, and consignment notes. This permits the store officer to arrange and plan for clearances of materials. Where materials received are from interior divisions e. g. from contractor's central store to the site store the doc engaged are usually Material transfer and Return to store Notes.
Storage and Warehousing: Competent and experience staffing is needed to perform the activities of storing materials. Although aggregate materials may well not require warehousing, some materials such as sanitary devices, glass panels, door and windows frames, electrical power equipment such as air conditions, ceiling lovers, room heaters, normal water heaters, and interior completing materials such as floor tiles, wall membrane tiles, floor coverings etc. requires safe-keeping within an enclosed storeroom to safeguard the materials against reduction, theft or pilferage, harm, etc. Nevertheless, in some cases material deterioration might occur in the reason for keeping materials waiting for you. For example heavy materials placed over a fragile material can lead to breakage. Therefore a specified operation of store personnel that considers downloading deliverables, good setting and proper layout in the store should be preserved. Also good storage area practice means that materials to be used early are kept nearer to the store entrance for simple access to the material in order to avoid displacing other materials before reaching the needed item. And repeated rotation of materials around storeroom should be prevented as it leads to breakage or ruin of materials.
2. 2 Objectives of Materials Management
The goal of functioning any business entity is to make profit over the goods or services it includes. In this admiration, building business is not an exception. The goal of the investment made on plants and machineries, expenses on materials of work and payment of personnel and lobour income is to make a reasonable profit at the end of every task work. In the inception of every project work, there is certainly continuous absorption in the use of materials to create components. The components makes up a composition and the structure makes up the whole building. Nevertheless the total level of all the materials needed to build a project must not be obtained at hand before work begins, rather the materials will be supplied daily or occasionally as scheduled by the project management team. This involves effective planning of inventories, effective buying and purchasing strategy, good safe-keeping and inventory control, timely supply and circulation of materials, and preserving the harmonious romantic relationship between the company and the client.
2. 3 Function of Materials Management
The function of materials management can be divided broadly into primary and secondary functions. Mainly it aims at planning materials of work required, purchasing which include selecting the reliable provider, ensuring the option of material at the specified point, and ascertaining and preserving the steady movement in material supply. The extra function is due to proper taking of material through coding and classifications of the materials to ensure proper record are kept both for getting and using of material. The other secondary functions of the materials management handles the diagnosis of challenges in handling and transportation of the materials. This challenges the job management team with need to adopt systematic implementation of their plans by any means level of the management organization. Ultimately it requires tight monitoring and control.
2. 4 Problem of Material Management
Organization Composition: Good organization composition that properly identifies assignments and responsibility of the individuals in any way level will probably support material management purpose. The coordination and communication between estimating section, research and development team, purchasing department, and flower and machineries department should be managed at highest level. Where there is poor coordination and communication, interior memo/records cannot reach an supposed destination. For instance when there is plant breakdown e. g. excavator is no longer working due to mechanised problem and the plant and machineries division did not alert engineering division about the problem until the time when soil excavation is necessary. Or quantity of materials such as cement is lower in the store without informing the purchasing division by the store official.
Storage Space: Large numbers of materials is required depending on magnitude of the job. And the term storage space signifies both enclosed and wide open space that can be used to keep materials of work safe until the need for it happen. All materials need cover against many threats such as pilferage, theft, destruction or loss. Material such as aggregates, bricks/blocks may well not require enclosed storage protection than proper outdoor setting and stacking. However, other materials such as reinforcement pubs, steel columns, timber, and galvanized material for trusses must be covered against connection with water in order to avoid rust/corrosion. How big is suggested building may occupy 60% of the full total project site, enabling the rest of the 40% to be utilized for temporary gain access to and site facilities. In such circumstance, the organizers must arrange for regular delivery of certain materials to avoid cluttering the space, and maintain continuous operation to keep carefully the encircling area clean.
Problem of Delivery: Not withstanding material order is placed early, a predicament exist where material cannot arrive on time. This can be due to an issue on the side of the dealer. And certain specialised materials might not be accessible within the proximity of the construction site. The material must be transferred possibly from another city e. g. hot rolled or frosty rolled materials. Eventually employee must be still left redundant and time has been wasted.
Security Problem: Security of materials onsite is of paramount importance. Gradual pilferage and theft are issues of matter to the task managers. Loss of materials through pilferage and theft symbolize financial lost to the task all together, and in the long run it increases the cost of the project. Materials are inclined to be taken despite being waiting for you. And some materials as earlier mentioned might not require indoor safe-keeping. Therefore, a well selected vigilante must be looked after a day onsite.
Availability of Materials on Market: Regular move of materials throughout job duration is probably the main function of materials management. However, this can be afflicted by market availability of the materials of work. Once in a while manufacturers can go out of raw material or be damaged by government plan to the level that production may have to be gradual or suspended. Unavailability of materials of work on market make a difference materials management by either increasing competition in materials purchase or wait the general work improvement.
Legislation: Domestic produces aren't likely capable to satisfy construction industry's need for raw materials. This is true no subject how develop a country is, certain products must be imported from another country. Exemplory case of these materials can be specialist hot rolled items, structural associates such as metallic I section columns, galvanized metal angle flat iron, air conditions, heaters, wall membrane tiles, floor tiles, etc. and government coverage on importation make a difference the movement or availability of material on market. Another example can be seen in the price tag on labour to be utilized for government jobs. Engineering labour costs are split into two; federal price, and the purchase price determined by other labour unions such as bricklayers union, metallic fixers union, etc. All labour cost whether union cost or federal government cost can be affected by the work of legislative committee who are accountable for monitoring and managing the aspect in a particular country.
3. 0 Relationships of the prevailing site layout to position of Material/Site facilities
Construction sites are bound to handle trouble not only theoretically related, also management related difficulties results into unwanted situation that affect time and cost. Site-based management can make a substantial improvement in the cost and time conserving during the structure process without including mass of additional work. One of the important jobs of site management is the site structure planning. Without effective and systematic method of site planning, intensive time reduction and cost overruns could end result especially in large projects, where the volume of manpower, subcontractors, and equipment included are high. An in depth planning of the site layout and location of temporary facilities can permit the management to make significant improvement through minimizing travel time, longing time, and increasing staff morale by showing better and safer work place.
Existing Site Design: Unlike these idea, the prevailing site structure shows concrete batching plant, timber, materials 1, materials 2, short-term building, spend, reinforcement, scaffold store, store 1, store 2, and non permanent highway with little information to fully identify the utilization of the facilities. It further located the concrete batching seed quite from any storage center. Waste material is situated behind the short-term office. And finally the job site does not contain security room and bathroom. The major brief coming of the existing site design is lack of proper meaning of the website facilities, whether the store is perfect for concrete or tools, what sort of material can be stored in the facilities known as 'Material', as both do not express ideal information that suggests the kind of materials to be stored.
Assuming the current position of the non permanent facilities is usually to be taken care of, the lead time of concrete work must be slow scheduled to large distance between the concrete batching place and stores. There is proposed two items of 2-storey building as shown on the site design, however no provision for tower crane that hoist materials of work to high surge area. Waste material facility shouldn't be too far from the center where most engineering activities occurs, this is true to be able to encourage the website sanitarians in keeping the site free of scraps that can cause injury e. g. cut off pieces of steel or timber, busted asbestos, long span lightweight aluminum roofing sheet, etc. The momentary walk ways in the prevailing site layout will not lead up to the places between both semi-detached and dual storey twin complexes. Following rainfall, the surrounding site area will probably become bog and muddy, thus inconveniencing traffic around the website.
4. 0 Anticipated problems to be encountered on the existing site layout
Most engineers hold the impression that site planning can be carried out simultaneously as the task proceeds daily. It's important to know that condition of project site would be the condition in which workers live throughout the project. Thus, careful pre-planning is crucial. Since structure labour cost constitutes 30-40 percent of task total cost, it is important to understand that significant cost saving will be achieved if the labour power moves openly and quickly within the job site. With free and quick improvement of labour power, large amount of work will be done in a day. Conversely, insufficient free movements slows rate of development by obstructing the pattern time of material delivery to staff.
4. 1 Anticipated Problem
Strictly speaking, the prevailing site structure contradicts the general site management idea. Engineering projects are to begin on a particular date and end on a particular date. Consequently, specific activities in the task receive expected starting and finishing time. Unless the actions are on schedule, the project won't finish on the time it is likely to conclude. And unless production is looked after at highest swiftness level, the average person activities wouldn't normally meet the routine. To maintain production at highest acceleration level, usage of materials of work must be uninterrupted. Interruption to materials access is triggered by different reason like the distance by which the material must go before achieving the final creation point. The next problems should be anticipated by the site manager:-
Laydown Space: The website layout will not consider simple laydown space for materials such as aggregates, bricks/blocks, etc. which do not require enclosed space for storing. Also for materials which can be set up to be occasionally brought to site such as pile for basis and precast concrete components. If tired pile foundation is usually to be used for the double-storey building and the appointed work force is the fact only 80 hemorrhoids can be driven into the soil per day. There destined to be problem for space to stack these things upon delivery before they can be used.
Plant & Equipment Wrongly Located: The concrete batching herb located far away from any safe-keeping facility indicates what lengths workers need to visit in order to bring material of work to the batching place. The batching plant and the materials stores are situated in two opposite attributes of the task boundary. This evidently increases the routine time for the production of damp concrete mix. The perfect process of casting wet concrete should not suggest any hold off in the production cycle which can be attained by keeping all the materials needed nearer to the batching seed. When materials are closer to production point, the amount of labourers would have to be delivering the materials can be reduced as a result of short pattern distance than they often have to protect assuming the materials is far away. Consequently, the amount of money that must be paid for lobour is reduced.
Poor Location of Short lived Building/ Site Office: It's important to locate short-term site office closer enough to be able to monitor the website activities probably by looking through the windows. However, it is evenly important to locate the office where noisy structure activities can be prevented as much as possible. The location of the non permanent office as shown upon this existing site plan seem to be to be too near to development activities especially vibration and sound produced by jetting down pile in to the earth. Large magnitude of vibration and audio is produced during hammering pile down into the ground, and particles flew up when drilling and chiseling openings on concrete or real wood components. Thus any office is also too close that dust particles may be getting into the building as a result of such activities.
Inadequate Space between The Existing Site Facilities: The existing facilities such as momentary building, reinforcement, scaffold store, waste, material, and store can be found too near one another. The result of the can be manifested by the necessity for materials delivery to the store between 'waste materials' and 'materials'. Locating site center in a confined space don't allow delivery vehicle to reach the location of the facility. And in the extreme it results into double handling of the materials by having to off-load temporarily before planning for workers to go the material to its final destination. Increase handling should be avoided whenever you can as it spend your time, and often attracts petty charges which when accumulated can make a reasonable sum of money.
Insecurity: The significant problem to be confronted by the site manager comes from the entire omission of the provision for site security shed. Materials, seed and equipment should never be to be studied home by workers nor always helped bring from high surge areas right down to store and locked up, and another morning they are adopted again. This is tedious. It is a good practice if small electric tools such as drilling machine, welding machines can be kept where they are used today for example on 2nd floor, and tomorrow the task continues without dependence on taking it up again. However, this may only be proven good practice if frequent day and night security of the materials is looked after in the building site. Material pilferage by labourers is another reason behind preserving security on site.
Omission of Personnel Canteen: Notwithstanding staff are always busy onsite, procedures should be produced for location of short-term staff canteen. Omission of the facility upon this project site could cause workers to visit some distance for need of normal water, cigarette, mints, cake, etc. so when this happens, automatically the task is retarded.
Lack of Short lived Bathroom: The provision of the seemingly less important site center is almost necessary in every job site. Site management personnel, visitors, users of statutory agencies, and staff are bound to require bathroom to ease themselves of these demand. It is impracticable while work is on progress for an employee to seek to go back home or everywhere away from the job site for the need of toilet. Therefore short-term site toilet should be among the website planners' focus when design momentary site facilities.
5. 0 Proposed New Site Layout
The architectural drawings of an project show among other things, the suggested position of the average person constructions within the scope of the task work. Invariably, this position must be managed and never to be changed due to need for short-term site facilities such as materials stores, security shed, staff canteen and toilets, site office, position of crane, etc. It is the job manager's responsibility to look at the activities that happen in the cause of construction work and offer viable alternative that maintain the suggested position of the constructions as well as proper location for the short-term site facilities. In obtaining this, number of factors deserves consideration. They are lead time of specific activities on the job, ease of access to material of work, activity cycle time, raw material delivery, security of individuals, types of materials, and space requirement of laydown goal and free connection.
Site Security Shed: Among the list of important site facilities is security shed as it offers shelter for site security staff against weather. It could be constructed of timber, steel/aluminum, tent leather, and even masonry materials such as brick/block, and rock defending on the decision of the job management team. Security shed is nearly provided in every kind of building project whether it is workplace, commercial building, university, hospital, etc. it is therefore beneficial to build the facility once and for all. Building security shed using short-term material like timber, metallic etc. can be viewed as as waste materials of money and time since the non permanent one must be changed by the everlasting structure to serve the same purpose at the end of the project work.
The the most suitable position for locating security facility is often by the primary entrance of the building, since security personnel are to keep an eye on any movement in and out thereby looking after the properties in and around the building. In this admiration, site security building is not any exception. Its position should be by the site main access. And it ought to be properly sited to permit clear coverage of acceptable locations both kept and right. Specifically to this task, the security building should be by the right area of the entry. This is because the left aspect is a proposed double-storey structure, and can prevent proper view of the semi-detached constructions at the opposite side credited to double-storey elevation of the building. Conversely, setting the service at the right palm side boosts proper viewing of the facade of the double-storey, as well as acceptable view of the semi-detached constructions.
Material Store: There may be amount of stores on site defending on the type of material to be retained in the store. Site materials stores do not need to be located all in a single position. The location has to be based on the type of materials in the store, distance between your store and the point of using the stored items, and accessibility by the delivery vehicle. All materials stores must be accessible to the materials delivery van, and be close enough to help ease difficulty in removing items from the store. Inaccessibility of store location final result into double handling a predicament where materials need to be temporarily off-loaded before moving the same into the store. That is time consuming and attracts bills.
Waste Material Store: Waste is being generated throughout executing works onsite. Therefore daily waste material management should be designed and preserved throughout the project duration. Site waste products can be destroyed stones, blocks/bricks, vacant cartons, cut-off pieces of metal, metal, timber, etc. which is no longer needed or seen as valuable. Defending on the website manager's decision, throw away can be stored as salvaged items which can eventually be sold for recycle goal. However, not all onsite throw away can be salvaged for recycling. Waste products such as newspaper cartons and polythene e. g. for tiles, sanitary and electric kitchen appliances are best disposed up by considered them away to any refuse collection point near by, since it isn't needed for recycle. This sort of waste might not require enclosed storage space facility. A straightforward laydown misuse collection point can be acceptable before they may be disposed-off. Only solid non-combustible waste materials e. g. cut-off material as piling materials, steel angle iron, steel portions, rebar etc. can be stored in waste facility before these are removed for recycling.
The best practice for onsite waste collection is to collect the generated waste products on daily basis just at the point it occurs. Since different investments will work at different places throughout the project site, it could be difficult to set a single point for waste products collection. The waste collected from all tips can be studied to central waste products collection service from where the gathered wastes from all the task activities are moved from the project site. For example, misuse can be produced at 2nd floor, 3rd floor, 4th floor, and earth floor respectively. The waste materials gathered at each floor should be stuffed and brought down to the central waste collection point. Like material store, the correct location for central waste products collection should always be accessible by both vehicle and employees to increase morale in dumping and subsequent removal from the project site.
Scaffold Store: There will vary types of scaffold designed to serve different goal. These are self-employed tie scaffold, parrot cage, slung scaffold, mobile tower scaffold, and putlog scaffold. The 3rd party tie and bird cage scaffolds are specially suitable for exterior works, covering from ground floor up to high climb areas to allow painting, plastering, glazing, and exterior electric work. They may be mounted immediately on arrival, and once installed do not need to be dismantled before end of the task. Such scaffold does not need to be continued site; ideally they could be onsite when the need occurs for. The putlog, slung, and mobile tower are simple scaffolds made for interior work of any sort that require access to roof areas e. g. mending of ceiling fan, chandeliers, etc. these kind of scaffold would be required to remain onsite, hence can be stored. Unlike materials store, the scaffold store may not have to be close to workers. This is due to rate of recurrence of its need is not as often as the materials of work. Mobile tower scaffold which is utilized for fixing roof finishes can be studied out of store, but must not necessarily be go back on a single day. It could be continued to be there, probably up on the 2nd floor where it has been used. It can only be returned to store when it's no more needed over there. However, as measure against theft, the position of storage service for such valuable items has be within the focal view of site security workers, hence should not be too far or sited in remote area.
Temporary Site Office: As stated previously that too close momentary site office is prone to disturbance either by loud engineering work or dust due to drilling, mortising and chiseling. Nevertheless site manager and his associates may be inquisitive to look through the windowpane just to determine how active everyone around the job site is. According to that, the website temporary office needs to be in secure location to accomplish this desire as well concerning promote peaceful site ending up in stakeholders, suppliers, subcontractors, foremen, etc. Specifically to this project site, the perfect location for momentary office should be at the top right hand place of the site structure (behind the semi-detached homes). Out of this point, there may be good view on the double-storey building at the contrary part, especially to enable a glance at how work is going on at high surge areas as well as the close by semi-detached residences. Also the positioning is relatively definately not noisy activities and dust particles, since most activities associated with drilling and chiseling of cement occurs on the double-storey building.
Concrete Batching Vegetable: Cement work is one of the very most difficult tasks to perform in engineering work. It requires both human effort and machineries to be efficiently tackled. Cement batching plant can be an essential place item needed to ease complications in concrete work and increase production lead time. Depending on the amount of damp mixed concrete needed in a specific batch, the batching place can be onsite and offsite. Onsite combine concrete can be studied to its destination e. g. high rise areas mostly through tower crane. It is because the volume of concrete per each bucket capacity is higher than the amount produced and taken care of by 10 number labourers using mind skillet or wheel barrows. If tower crane is usually to be used for distributing wet concrete, then the most crucial factor is to ensure that the crane arm can access the positioning of the concrete batcher. However despite using cement, the need for wheel barrow and labourers must be looked after for minimal demand of small quantity of concrete mix. Therefore the proposed position of the concrete batching plant as shown on the existing site layout is usually to be retained, since tower crane can gain access to the positioning.
Laydown Space: That is an open up space necessary for direct tipping onto the ground of materials such as aggregates, blocks/bricks, and metallic pile for pile foundations. The root idea behind choosing location for laydown space is the fact that the location should not be sited on drainage series or excavation collection. And that the space is not too much for workers to obtain material for work. It is therefore proposed on this project that the laydown space is beside concrete batching flower as it almost within the guts of the project site.
Site Short lived Toilet: This is amongst the top facilities over a project site. Lot of men and women can be focusing on development site from morning till night. It cannot be estimated the number of workers including participants of the task management team that should go to toilet for just one reason or the other in a day. Therefore, for any job site the temporary site center must be provided. There are different designs designed for temporary toilet center ranging from momentary bucket latrine, normal water closet system, and pit latrine. Specifically to the project, the best choice is to adopt the water closet system because the permanent complexes on the project are to use the same kind of toilet system. In this case, the sanitary pits such as septic tank and soak away proposed for the key buildings can be utilized for the non permanent site toilet. The proposed position of the momentary site toilet is to maintain the same position as the temporary site office, however can be separated to indicate the one for labourers as well as for management personnel.
Tower Crane: To increase delivery of ready mixture cement and other material to their final destination, tower crane must be necessary for any development site especially where in fact the construction work includes more than one storey building. Using crane for materials dispatch inevitably effect into accomplishment of great deal of work per day than often. A crane can carry a batch of concrete blend weighting almost 600kg up to a height of around 20 storeys or dried up cement handbags of almost 1500kg to a elevation of 15 storeys. The omission of this mechanical facility upon this project can be thought as a major setback to the general work on both site and material management.
Cranes are mainly grouped as mobile and set crane. Mobile crane as the name implies are those cranes that can move from one spot to another. They are simply best used where there is ample space for the crane to go readily within the job site. Predetermined cranes are those cranes situated in a set position. They cannot move from other fixed position, thus the major consideration when positioning the crane is the power of the crane arm to attain almost every location within the task site. Because of this project, it is chosen for the crane to be located between your double storey buildings. This is to prevent the passage of the packed crane arm over head workers on the opposite semi-detached buildings. It is always a good practice if crane arm packed with materials can be averted whenever you can of passing over head workers down around the project site to be able to minimize automobile accident.
Staff Canteen: The word staff canteen identifies a non permanent onsite shop which can be consisting of timber, light weight aluminum, or tent leather to provide personnel with a number of goods such as Cigarettes, Mints, Biscuits, Cake, Container water, Carbonated drinks, etc. Personnel canteen can further provide cooked foods depending on the need of the labourers on the task site. Unlike other temporary site facilities that want a place within the boundary of the proposed site, site personnel canteen may be located just beyond your perimeter wall structure of the task site especially where lack of space is an concern on the job site. However, fair care should be studied by the site security employees to ensure protection of the facility. On this project, space is likely to prevent the siting of the personnel canteen within the boundary of the task site, thus it is suggested to be outside the house just by the main gate.
6. 0 Recommendations to Impact Materials Management Process
Ensure that the materials needed are obtainable during the project. Where materials needed can't be obtained the aim of the material procurement will be defeated thus resulting into evaluation of other option for procuring another material. Eventually time has been squandered; cost incurred to make the initial materials proposal is lost.
The supply can be managed throughout the task duration. Early evaluation of the likelihood of maintaining steady supply of all the materials needed should be carried out by the job management team. While emphasis must be put on the selection of reliable supplier who can be respected in conditions of delivery of materials. Evaluation of provider requires the evaluation of the supplier's resources such as delivery van, work force focused on supply, other means of meeting materials order should there no available with the provider.
Materials are immediately sent to the project. Not merely steady supply is necessary, but well-timed delivery of the material is of matter especially where certain materials are slated to be brought to site periodically for just one reason or the other e. g. insufficient space. Project management should realize that in case of looking forward to delivery amount of project aspect are influenced. This includes repayment on plants and items employed on daily basis, cost for redundancy of labour, deviation from prepared scheduled.
Strict guidance should be imposed from offloading, controlling, safe-keeping and use. Materials waste occurs caused by poor handling while materials are on the ownership of contractor. Therefore adequate guidance must be placed in place to ensure careful offloading of deliverables (especially fragile items) through to proper positioning in the store. Moreover in the use of materials to ensure that materials are being removed from store regarding to demand.
Ensures negligible amount of wastage is documented per every activity. Once focus on is defined against the required amount of material needed for any activity, all effort must maintain destination to ensure the number originally allocated is not exceeded. Although this might require qualified labour force which may demand high payment than often, it is available that waste gained credited to labour incompetency is much larger and negatively impact task than high cost of labour itself.
Good record retained of materials received, used, and remaining in the store. Systematic record of the number of materials received, amount removed from store daily, volume used per day, and the total amount stay in the store should all be looked after. This ensures monitoring of any inconsistencies likely between the purchase made and the total amount received and used.
Security should be preserved to avoid theft and pilferage. Development materials are purchased according the estimate made on the total amount needed. Therefore any reduction, damage, wastes, and pilferage/theft can be an try to undermine the overall effort to provide the project effectively. Damage and wastes are foreseeable, thus can be paid out by rational arithmetic calculation during material estimation. But theft and pilferage must be eradicated through regular security that should be maintained throughout project duration.
7. 0 Conclusion
Every task work is exclusive, as such standard plan and agenda cannot be retained for any one. That is true because every job has its sort of challenges caused by the unique type of material and building method which may be required to used in the project. However certain ideas can be followed as basis for growing any project working arrangements. When adopting principles as a basis for project development, it is vital to be aware that the ultimate goal of material management in any task is the security against loss or waste material of resources that inflict the contractor's earnings. To this end, contractors must exercise careful analysis of materials management aspects such as purchase plan, safe-keeping plan, employees plan, material variety plan, etc. to ascertain compatibility with the prospective project.
After evaluation of ideas and schedules proposed to be utilized in a job, the next line of action for the task management team can be an effort to set up place the programs and schedule through the construction stage of the job. Such effort requires proper site planning since almost all the plans and schedules are to be used in accomplishing the actions of the task work. As previously mentioned in the conversation in this record work that the condition of a job site would be the condition in which workers, materials, vegetation and machineries, and even the job team would live for the duration of the project. Therefore site planning its home can be considered as among the list of factors that determine success in material management effort.
Success of material management at job site is achieved when materials are secured from destruction and deteriorations, theft and pilferage, damage, breakage, etc. resulting from factors such as careful handling, and good storage center. Another success of material management can be documented through creating less wastage on every material used. Though this might require qualified labour operatives and close guidance from the task team, it can be an indication that materials management process is continues once began until its aims are found. Project professionals or their staff are not recognized to stay absent from the project site for just about any too long period of time. Especially respond to the goal of material management at structure site level.
Table of Contents
1. 0 Intro1
2. 0 LETRATURE REVIEW ON MATERIAL MANAGEMENT. . 2 - 7
2. 1 COMPONENT OF MATERIAL MANAGEMENT. . . 2
2. 2 OBJECTIVE OF Materials MANAGEMENT5
2. 3 FUNCTION OF Materials MANAGEMENT5
2. 4 PROBLEMS OF MATERIAL MANAGEMENT. . . 5 - 7
3. 0 RELATION OF THE PREVAILING SITE LAYOUT TO THE POSITIONING OF MATERIAL/SITE FACILITIES8
4. 0 ANTICIPATED PROBLEMS ON THE EXISTING SITE LAYOUT. . . 9 - 11
5. 0 PROPSED NEW SITE Design12 - 16
6. 0 Suggestions TO IMPACT Materials MANAGEMENT PROCESS. 17 - 18
7. 0 Finish. . . 19
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