Lean construction task is very different in comparison to traditional construction project management where Lean approach aims to maximize performance for the client at the task level, placed well-defined objective clearly for delivery process, design concurrent product and process and applies development control throughout the life of task (Howell, 1999).
Construction is an integral sector of the countrywide overall economy for countries all around the world, as typically it took up a big part in nation's total job and its own significant contribution to a nation's income as a whole. However, until today, building industries remain facing amounts of contingent issues that were bounded to be fixed since the past time. The chronic problems of development are well known such as Low efficiency, poor safety, substandard working conditions, and insufficient quality. (Koskela, 1993) and the sensation of the poor performance and conditions in engineering had long been witnessed and registered by academics and practitioners throughout the world irrespective in developed countries e. g. England (Eaton, 1994) or in developing countries e. g. Chile. (Serpell et al. , 1995)
Nowadays, increasing international competition, the scarcity of skilled labour and the need to improve building quality will be the key challenges encountered by the development industry. Giving an answer to those issues imposes an immediate demand to improve productivity, quality and to incorporate new technology to the industry. A lack of responsiveness can hold-back development, and also to development of the needed infrastructure for the construction industry and other key activities in the country. (Alarcon, 1994). http://www. scribd. com/doc/37230963/Lean-Construction(lps still left)
Pertaining to the troubles encountered by the building industry, numerous researches and studies had been carried out for days gone by decades to recognize the complexities to the building problems plus some of them got went on to suggest and recommend answers to rectify those recognized problems. The first phase of the studies mainly centered on the "end" aspect of the engineering process with the benefits of new technology and equipment to increase the engineering process and improve overall production. It had been only until later 1980s where a new engineering improvement movement had been initiated by looking at the "mean" area of the construction process-related problems in a more holistic and organized way based on the philosophy and ideology of trim production. With the lean engineering paradigm, engineering industry had began to be reviewed and examined in the options of putting into action these new slim perspectives of creation principles in the development functions to optimise the overall structure performance on structure stage as well as design level. However, in development, there has been rather little curiosity about this new development school of thought. (Alarcon, 1994) This subject laid on set up new production beliefs has implications for building and can give any significant influences on the output improvement.
According to the scholars and researchers in Lean Building, the new structure production viewpoint is laid on the principles of conversion and flow process. Therefore, performance improvement opportunities in building can then be attended to by adopting misuse identification/ lowering strategies in the flow techniques in parallel with value adding strategies with the benefits of new management tools and with proper trainings and education programs. Alas, these new lean construction ideas especially those on wastes and ideals most of the days aren't well comprehended by construction staff. Particularly, waste is generally associated with waste products of materials in the structure operations while non-value adding activities such as inspection, delays, travel of materials while others are not accepted as waste. (Alarcon, 1995) As the consequence of that, the productivity of engineering industry can't be fully optimised due to the slim interpretation on the idea of waste current used. In this case, considerable education programs need to be arranged for those related parties involved in order to put into practice the new process improvement strategies effectively throughout the structure process pattern.
According to Ballard &Howell (1998), construction covers a spectrum which range from sluggish, certain, and simple job to quick, uncertain and complicated project. Meanwhile, Koskela (1992) stated that construction is exclusive in the sense than it is one-of kind character of jobs, site development and short-term multi-organization. However, failure of establishing a good management system in building job will lead to numerous issues that would cause cost of job increases, late completion of project and low quality which finally decrease the revenue of the contractor. In order to conquer this problems, low fat thinking or slim construction is been unveiled in this engineering sector.
According to Howell (1999), lean construction is one of the new philosophies that been applied by Toyota in their production process which now put on the engineering industry in order to smoothen the development project and boost the contractor's profit by eliminating waste material. This backed by Ballard and Howell (1998) whom also mentioned the same facts that trim thinking in building concerned in waste material reduction.
Generally, lean strategy breaks the development project to smaller elements of activities which is defined clearly the beginning and end time frame for completion of each activity with an appointed person to keep on monitoring the all the activities to be completed matching schedule. (lean construction 19/11)
2. 2 Types of waste
In most circumstances, construction managers have no idea or recognize the factors that produce waste materials nor have they way of measuring of their importance. It could be said that almost all of the factors aren't easily obvious. Thus the identification of these factors and their triggers, and the way of measuring of these importance is useful information that could allow managers to act in advance to reduce their negative effect. In engineering industry the waste materials comes from the movement activities, conversion activities and management activities.
1. Defects:-This includes incorrect installations, fabrication defects, errors in punch lists rather than meeting required codes. Rework in engineering is rarely assessed.
These are products that do not comply with the standards or Customer's expectation, thus causing Customer dissatisfaction.
2. Overproduction of goods:-This happens when materials is fabricated too early and/or stockpiled in the warehouse or at the job site. Estimating and bidding careers that are not won is a kind of this waste. Producing more blueprints or making more copies of a report than needed is overproduction.
Overproduction occurs when operations continue once they should have discontinued. The results of overproduction are;
Products being produced in more than what's required
Products being made too early
Excess inventory transporting costs
3. Transportation:-This throw away occurs when material is moved surrounding the shop, loaded on the pick up truck or trailer, hauled to the work site, unloaded and then shifted from the lay-down or staging area to the installation point.
This is unnecessary motion or motion of materials, such as work-in-process (WIP) being carried from one procedure to another. Preferably carry should be minimized for two reasons;
It adds the perfect time to the process where no value-added activity is being performed.
Handling damage could be incurred
4. Waiting around:-Examples include whenever a staff waits for instructions or materials at the job site, whenever a fabrication machine waits for material to be loaded and even though payroll waits for the always-late timesheets.
Also known as queuing, hanging around identifies the times of inactivity in a downstream process that occur because an upstream activity will not deliver on time. Idle downstream resources are then often found in activities that either don't add value or lead to overproduction
5. Over-processing:-This waste products includes over-engineering, for example, the need for more signatures on the requisition, multiple handling of timesheets, duplicate entries on forms, and getting double and triple estimations from suppliers.
This term identifies extra businesses, such as rework, reprocessing, handling or storage that occurs because of defects, overproduction or unnecessary inventory.
6. Motion:-These "treasure hunts" happen when materials is stored from the job or when personnel look for tools, material or information. This waste products also occurs in the office or job-site trailer when looking for files, reports, research books, drawings, contracts or seller catalogs.
To move and add value is named work. To move and not add value is called motion. Movement, then, means moving without working, moving and adding cost"
7. Inventory: - This consists of uncut materials, work-in-process, and completed fabrications. Some contractors declare that they have no inventory because they job-cost all material. While this may improve accounting, if the materials is not yet installed and isn't being utilized by the customer, it's misuse. This waste products includes spare parts, unused tools, consumables, forms and copies, employee stashes and personal stockpiles. You can dispute that the unfinished service is inventory which is waste until functional.
This identifies inventory that is not directly necessary to fulfil current Customer requests. Inventory includes recycleables, work-in-process and finished goods. Inventory all requires additional handling and space.
http://www. leaninnovations. ca/seven_types. html
2. 3 Factors behind waste:-
1. Controllable triggers associated to flows
Materials: lack of materials at the work place; materials aren't well distributed; inadequate transport means.
Equipment: non supply; inefficient utilization; limited equipment for work needs.
Labour : personal behaviour of workers; stoppage of work
Lack of information
Poor information quality
Timing of delivery is inadequate
2. Controllable causes associated to conversions
Deficient design of work crews
Inadequate support to work activities
Lack of work place
Too much people working in reduced place
Poor work condition
Poor execution of work
Damage to work already finished
3. Controllable management related causes
(a) Decision making
Poor allocation of work to labor
Poor circulation of personnel
Poor or lack of supervision
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