Constructing Flyovers At Sri Lankan Traffic Jammed Areas Structure Essay

An efficient carry network is the backbone of a healthy economy. As SriLankans almost all of our output is lost due to the inefficient and congested street network. One of the recent additions for traffic management and to minimize congestion in colombo city and its suburbs has been the release of flyovers at important intersections of the key road corridors. The main function of any flyover is the parting of conflicting traffic activities thereby minimizing issues by using the vertical space. Therefore, it is assumed to cause less impact to the adjacent properties and the existing infrastructure. However, this depends on the kind of flyover and the traffic style at the junction.

2. The efficiency of the recently presented flyovers in the suburbs of metropolis of colombo can be approved by looking at before and after conditions of important traffic anatomist parameters. Additionally it is important to analyze the congestion level at the intersection and its own significance compared to the entire highway system. Simply the speed and the machine capacity can be likened as main factors to test this at a specific location. Moreover, the benefits and cost of a flyover against other reasonable and alternatives to secure a similar effect should be taken in to factor and evaluated. Within this research has attemptedto compare the monetary benefits of adding flyovers against other short-term and long term alternatives. The possible alternatives available both from traffic and transport aspects are also extensively discussed in my research.

3. The first of the group of large size flyovers launched to Sri Lanka lately can be found across main railway lines in and around colombo. The first of these was a concrete cantilever type flyover in Ragama. This is designed in 1996 to avoid the delay triggered by the railway gate closures at the key line. Another flyover was completed across the baseline Highway area.

Dematagoda which was also across the primary railway line in calendar year 2000 to prevent the stagnation of vehicles on the Base line road. This is a 6 lane viaduct (culvert) type concrete composition. Another flyover, which is a steel framework, was created in 2008 at Kelaniya within an archive period of just 66 times; this is also to avoid the delay from the main railway line across the colombo-Kandy Road. The main purpose for the development of most these flyovers was to reduce delays induced to vehicle traffic because of the closures of rail gates and reduction of accidents.

4. The latest flyover was designed at Nugegoda junction in 2009 2009. This is the first flyover at a highway intersection, constructed in order to reduce intersection delays in Nugegoda. This too is a metallic structure.

5. From the above details we could basically divide flyovers in SriLanka directly into two main categories,

a. Those across railway lines (railway overpasses) and

b. those across road intersections resulting in class separations.

6. The evaluations of key performance factors such as acceleration, safety, and economical cost with or without the flyover can be examined for both categories. Also, the economic viability of each category could be approved by comparing the price and the benefits associated with the design life of each flyover. Selection of the type of flyover and its own design are also appealing. In this esteem, the comparability between cost, life time, likelihood of land use, space utilization as well as the visible and function influences on the region would be looked at as being relevant decision making variables for the selection of the sort of flyover.

CHAPTER TWO

METHODOLOGY

AIM

The aim of this research is to identify and analyze the issues related the building of flyovers at the traffic jammed areas in colombo district, How exactly to improve & discovers the achievements and downsides being available in the flyovers.

STATEMENT OF PROBLEM

2. The progress of population, market and as a result of the prevailing financial policy, the number of motor travel is increasing daily however the road network hasn't developed in such a manner to appeal to the increasing requirement building a great effect on the growth of the economy. In the same way the inefficiency of general public passenger travelling combines together with this, as it is the function of travel utilized by the general public for way of life.

3. Additionally Improvements to People Vehicles can reduce traffic congestion by attracting car and other motorized users to bus and coach transportation hence can donate to the market in permanent by reduce energy consumption, efficient use of road and vehicle fleet, reduced incidents, etc. Increasing of private motorized vehicles by widening and bettering more capacity to it will create further problems to the traffic environment in future. Hence, the matter of more tax and quota system to reduce vehicle ownership will reduce the vehicle expansion rate. But at the same time government should improve general public transport to satisfactorily for the convenience of all users.

4. Alternatively very costly infrastructure will adversely impact to the current economic climate of an country as they lose the power for costs to other important needs at the same time hence the inflation rate would be intolerable if they're already have monetary crisis. Therefore, injection of local financing to huge infrastructure that may produce marginal benefits is a waste for a region. However, the flyovers also can be built using strengthened concrete structures too at less expensive than steel structure presented at placed in Colombo nowadays.

THE RESEARCH HYPOTHESIS

5. It really is hypothesized that engineering of flyovers at the traffic jammed areas as this is actually the best solution for the problem, in this framework there is no such requirement of add more kilometers to your highway network.

SCOPE IN THE RESEARCH

6. This research paper examines the lapses in the road network, one of the very most recent traffic management methods, Advancements to Public Vehicles can reduce traffic congestion and open public passenger transportation at present, on its maintenance and presence, and exactly how it impacts the economy of your country and the ways open to overcome the condition effectively.

METHOD OF DATA COLLECTION

7. The info for the research is accumulated both from major and secondary options.

Primary data

The Principal data has been collected from 40 examples in colombo region.

Secondary data

The data necessary for the research collected from the supplementary options with relevant Literature, RDA/UDA Specialized personals and the Internet utilized.

LIMITATION OF THE RESEARCH

8. My Limitation is

Primary data was accumulated mainly from questionnaires, the assumption is in the information is 100% correct.

Forty consumer of flyover were picked for the study. This also is a restriction in the generalization of the effect.

GLOBAL Encounters WITH FLYOVERS

1. Flyovers have been assumed to be an ultimate solution for traffic congestion in the congested metropolitan areas of developing countries. Large numbers of flyovers has been made inside our country in previous couple of years. However, the real performance of such flyovers is debatable when contemplating the entire impact to other travel functions such as pedestrian facilities, visual looks and business advancements in the locality. There is a strong public perception that flyovers have fixed or will solve traffic problems in urban centers. Therefore, there is no apparent amount of resistance from the public, media, politicians and administrators when flyovers are designed. Really the only resistance comes from the few that are adversely damaged, for example, owners/tenants of business establishments, residents and civil corporations. In response they are generally criticized for not being socially conscientious and to be anti-development given that they usually cannot justify their own reasons from a specialist point of view and there is absolutely no support for the coffee lover even if hundreds of thousands may even have problems with the undesireable effects of such improvements. The position that the pursuits and capability of society at large over the inconvenience or losses to some are often overlooked in many countries. There appears to be no counter-top to such quarrels since there is definitely some logic and fact to it.

2. It has in fact been shown that the convenience of a flyover mainly occurs only during the non-peak hours of traffic circulation. For instance, during non-peak time well-designed at-grade intersections like those in every present flyovers are doing fine as it is only in peak hours that flyovers have hook benefit. The convenience is also sensed only in 2 directions of traffic move out of any possible 12 guidelines at an intersection. These myths experienced a great affect on the public's head that flyovers indeed solve

all traffic problems at intersections. Only in-depth examination and executive computations can counter this influence. One example is, our country and in developing countries are analyzing possibilities of bringing out toll systems to recuperate the huge cost of the flyovers. However there are complications in putting into action such methods because of the insufficient space for toll booths and also the difficulty of imposing this to the users who only have marginal benefits from a single service within the overall highway infrastructure.

3. The experience in our country and in producing countries is that flyovers have never given the anticipated benefits for growing cities. Moreover it has been regarded as a risk to the urban architecture as well as the convenience within the city. Common complaints regarding flyovers will be the negligence of public transportation, transit facilities, and pedestrian facilities.

STUDY AREA

4. Within the colombo suburban area there are four flyovers of recent origins. The three (04) railway flyovers particularly at Dematagoda, Ragama, Dehiwala and the recently produced at Pattiya Junction in Kiribathgoda are one of them study Number 01. The Nugegoda flyover is at a highway intersection. This too is included to be talked about separately.

The data required for the research accumulated from the secondary resources with relevant Catalogs, RDA/UDA Specialized staff and the web utilized.

ANALYSIS

6. The examination is completed under two categories namely flyover performance at road intersection and flyover over the railway lines.

FLYOVERS AT ROAD INTERSECTION

7. The travel time data of all turnings like the through traffic on the flyover at Nugegoda intersection were used to compute the average (daily average) quickness and delay at each procedure of street links (Figure 02).

Figure 02: Travel Time Review at Nugegoda Intersection with Flyover

8. The common two way traffic flow speed on each 100 meters section of all four road techniques (up to 2km) of the Nugegoda flyover. The common speed of highway links apart from on the flyover includes the sign hold off too.

9. It had been witnessed from the above evaluation that flyovers at railway crossings give higher benefits when compared to that of street intersections. The assessment of basic worth indicates that concrete flyovers are much better than that of steel structures. This is evident when the life time and the maintenance of both types of flyovers are compared. Even though the economic evaluation was done for twenty years, the concrete structures can keep going for more than 50 years without many auto repairs on it. And so the great things about concrete buildings are a lot more than those indicated in this examination.

10. The flyover at Nugegoda intersection suitable for 20 years. Based on the travel time survey data, this flyover suggests the lowest personal savings. It also gets the highest per lane kilometres cost. However, the signalization with improvements to approach links of the intersection as an alternative to the flyover reveals very well.

11. It was witnessed that the flyover or signalization only will not solve the traffic congestion at an intersection but that this also needs capacity advancements of methodology links for a noticable difference at that intersection. It could be observed that the majority of the intersection methods are often obstructed by parked vehicles and alternative activities such as uncontrolled pedestrian actions and momentary businesses on the walkways. Therefore it is often seen that the existing highway infrastructures in cities are not properly utilized. The capacity of road links and the intersection can be upgraded by enhanced traffic management strategies.

NEW FLYOVERS PLANNED BUT Absence PROPER PEDESTRIAN WALKWAYS

12. They have enter into the notice of the Srilanka that to be able to increase the travel system the Srilanka government has planned a great deal of exercises. Integrated multimodal travel system, will play a dominant part in offering a powerful public transport service and maybe will certainly reduce private vehicles.

13. Overall, the main emphasis is on the development of more highways and more effective mass travelling. Though, there is no emphasis on the normal man- the pedestrian- and his requirement of safe problem free movement space.

14. There is no doubt in my mind that with steady increase in the numbers of vehicles and footpaths, pedestrian space in the colombo city is becoming progressively more marginalized. In other word, the footpath was meant to be considered a place for the normal man to walk upon and didn't belong to who owns plots adjoining the access road.

15. Theoretically speaking, streets have been widened in Srilanka and flyovers have been built-in all the major locations of the country without offering safe and convenient facilities for pedestrian to cross over. The necessity for enough pedestrian space can be an total must especially in places where large number of men and women gets collectively such such as neighborhood market segments and shopping malls specially Dehiwala.

16. Regrettably, here also, the concentrate appears to be on providing for the activity of vehicles and the auto parking of cars. Customers dodge their way around moving vehicles, three-wheelers, motorcycles and injuries are consistent and common. Not surprisingly traders have prolonged to avoid the pedestrianisation of shopping roads fearing loss of business.

TRANSPORTABLE ROADWORK TRAFFIC Sign SYSTEM

TRAFFIC-RELATED

Low-cost traffic signal system for one-way alternating traffic.

Easy to control, clearly organized at a glance.

Universal in use with power cable television, Telephone cable among others.

All signal heads uniformity and simple.

MODES OF OPERATION:

Automatic set time mode

Automatic inexperienced time extension

Automatic inexperienced on demand

All-red in cable tv and radio mode

Manual operation from every signal head possible in cable connection and radio mode

FLYOVER CONSTRUCTION

17. Recent traffic counts have shown that there are in excess of 30, 000 vehicles using the roundabout daily at colombo area. The straight-through movement between your east and western sides off of the South Ring Highway was the best recorded traffic motion at the roundabout and represents around 40% of the full total traffic using the roundabout. There is an urgent need for grade separation.

18. Effective traffic management throughout the length of the task was essential as the same level of vehicles used the roundabout during development as they performed before development. From public view, traffic management was set up effectively and major delays were uncommon.

CHAPTER FOUR

IDENTIFY MAJOR ISSUES AND Problems UPLIFTING EXISTING Highway NETWORK AND IDENTIFY EFFECTS

SUPPLY AND DEMAND

WIDENING WORKS UNDERWAY ON THE WAY TO INCREASE THE RANGE OF LANES.

1. Congestion can be reduced by either increasing street capacity (supply), or by lowering traffic (demand). Capacity can be increased in several ways, but needs to take bank account of hidden requirements otherwise it may be used more strongly than expected. Critics of the approach of adding capacity have compared it to inducing demand that did not exist before. Reducing road capacity has subsequently been attacked as eliminating free choice as well as increasing travel costs and times.

INCREASED SUPPLY RANGE FROM:

Adding more capacity at bottlenecks (such as by adding more lanes at the trouble of parking/harden type shoulders or safety areas, or by removing local obstacles like bridge helps and widening tunnels)

Adding more capacity over the complete of a route (generally by adding more lanes)

Creating new routes

Traffic management improvements

REDUCTION OF DEMAND CAN INCLUDE:

Vehicle car parking or non parking restrictions.

Vehicle park or no parking (Ride) facilities allowing auto parking at a distance and allowing continuation by private and commercial transport or selected street.

Reduction of street capacity to push traffic onto other ways and settings.

Road entering fees (Southern highway) charging money for access onto a highway/specific area at times, congestion levels or for several motorists.

Road reserve area, where regulatory restrictions prevent certain types of vehicles from driving a car under certain circumstances or using areas.

Rule/Policy approaches, which usually attempt to provide either tactical alternatives or which encourage greater utilization of existing alternatives through campaign, subsidies or restrictions.

TRAFFIC MANAGEMENT

2. Global setting system (GPS) devices are being used to find out global locations points, which are assessed and noted as Longitude (E), Latitude (S), and Elevation/Altitude (meters above sea level). Anyways before commencement of a GPS study must be required checklist.

Traffic monitoring, via radio, Gps navigation or possibly mobile type devices, to advise motorists.

Fluctuate type message installed over the roadway, to suggest road users.

Navigation or clear determining system possibly associated up to computerized traffic reporting.

Traffic monitoring / inspecting forever installed, to provide real-time traffic matters.

Road traffic monitoring/Research, to provide information on highway.

Computerized highway system, a future idea that could decrease the safe period between vehicles (required for braking in emergencies) and increase highway capacity by as much as 100% while increasing travel speeds.

Parking area and guidance with information systems providing strong advice to motorists about free car parking.

Active vehicle controlling (Critical situation) system hard area (Parking, bus halt) as an extra traffic lane, it uses CCTV and monitor the traffic's use of the excess lane.

OTHER ASSOCIATED

3. Other associated are,

School time (Start/End) assemble to avoid active time traffic.

Driving behavior campaign and enforcement in addition driving practices, frequent street such as security or college hrs etc changes can reduce a road's capacity and exacerbate jams.

Visual/Sound obstacles such as horn CGR gate bell ringing etc; to prevent drivers from slowing out of curiosity.

Condition of acceleration reductions, showing velocity limit, humps etc with lower rates of speed allowing cars to drive closer collectively, this increases the capacity of a road.

4. Moreover where space-efficient vehicles, usually motor bike, three-wheels and vehicles trip or drive in the allocated space between cars, buses, and trucks specially look hrs. That is however against the law in many countries as it is regarded as a safeness risk.

ADVANTAGES AND DISADVANTAGES THROUGH THE FLYOVER

Acceptable and accepted - only rail borne methods can in practice get people out of vehicles.

Smooth - no violent moves vertically, laterally, or backwards/forwards.

Comfortable

Re-assuring - tram lines (New proposal season 2009 however, not succeeded) give assurance that service operates.

Safe - often safer than vehicle travel.

Speedy - short trip times can be achieve.

Compatible with pedestrians in pedestrianised areas.

Clean and renewable - enhances the environment - no emissions at neighborhood level.

Avoids traffic congestion - through segregation and top priority.

5. Highways including highways with level separation generally allow traffic to go widely, with fewer interruptions, and at higher overall speeds; this is excatly why speed limits are typically higher for grade-separated roads. In addition, less conflict between traffic motions reduces the capacity for crashes. Motorways, though having higher average rates of speed, usually have much lower car accident rates per distance traveled than roads which are not grade separated.

6. However, grade-separated junctions are extremely space-intensive, complicated, and costly, due to the dependence on large physical buildings such as tunnels, ramps, and bridges. Their level can be obtrusive, and this, combined with the large traffic amounts that grade-separated streets attract, tends to make them unpopular to near by landowners and residents. New grade-separated road plans can obtain significant opposition from local teams therefore.

7. Rail-over-rail class separations take up less space than road quality separations, because shoulders aren't needed, there are generally fewer branches and side road connections to accommodate (because a partial grade separation will attain more improvement than for a road), and because at-grade railway connections often take up significant space independently. However, they require significant engineering work, and are very expensive and time-consuming to construct.

8. Rail-over-road class separations require hardly any additional space because no connections need be built, but require significant executive effort and are costly and time-consuming to construct above.

9. Many closures from 1990 to 2010 took place, and many people thought that it was the start of the Colombo, Galle, Kandy vehicles, but the situation transformed after 1990. Large numbers of automobiles started creating pollution and smog. High rising of petrol & diesel in international market also thought individuals who petrol running vehicle is considerably worse than electricity motivated streets rail.

ROAD INFRASTRUCTURE

10. Under this subject street infrastructure can be improve under this conditions,

Grade or type separation, using bridges (or, less often, tunnels) freeing activities from having to stop for other crossing activities.

congested motorway-type roadway.

Reducing junctions

(1) Providing through lanes that bypass junction on-ramp and off-ramp zones (Except highway access)

(2) A class access road, highways that limit the type and levels of way along their measures.

REVERSIBLE TYPE LANES

11. Taking into consideration the day today, certain parts of highway operate in the opposite direction on different times of the day or times of the week.

SEPARATE LANES

12. Distinct lanes for specific consumer groups,

Public bus ways,

Pedestrians (High occupancy vehicle street)

URBAN PLANNING AND DESIGN

13. Urban planning and city planning (UDA/NHDA planning) routines can have an enormous impact on degrees of future traffic congestion, though they can be of limited relevance for short-term change.

Grid type plan (Interconnect system) including road network geometry, somewhat than tree-like system which reduce local traffic, but increase total ranges influenced and discourage walking by reducing connectivity.

Zoning laws and regulations that encourage development under merged type, which reduces distances between residential, commercial, and recreational locations (and encourage cycling and walking)

The development is home and commercial areas designed to maximize usage of public transfer.

THOUGHTS ON URBAN PLANNING AND DESIGN

14. A well-developed travel system performs a great role for any country of the world to build up and it remains so for our country also. The country has developed up to certain level throughout the time but the travelling hasn't, to appeal to the increasing demand. On our voyage for development this needs to be the principal area to be looked at. It is not only a responsibility of the federal government but also depends on the frame of mind of the people. The government also offers the responsibility to place a genuine work for this other than going only for political accomplishments and therefore should give priority for the development of the area.

15. AS I made the interview RDA and UDA expertise they are simply said that "we have done researches and given most cost-effective and the feasible methods to develop this area but we have no idea how it will be done anticipated to non availability of funds and facilities"

16. The aforementioned economic examination is completed considering only the volume of transport cost savings based on a travel time study at each flyover location. A thorough study might have been carried out to check the problem more accurately if the respective data sources have been available.

17. However, this is a good strategy for removing the delay at railway crossings as a permanent concern. Also the concrete flyovers across railways are more economical than the metal bridges constructed in a very short time.

CHAPTER FIVE

ANALYSIS

1. My Evaluation was done in the area of Nugegoda, one of the closest cities to the Colombo city. Questionnaire was ready and allocated among all age groups. The test size is 40 personnel and all responded with their identity.

Figure 01

2. My 2nd observation was made to discover how many people (from 40 personnel sample) are using flyovers and how often they utilize it. According to find 02 it has been detected that more than 65% persons are using flyovers daily and they have the difference between the previous and the current situation of the time saving.

Figure 02

3. My 3rd observation was made to determine who are the majority using this flyovers. It's been observed that there surely is more than 60% employees will be the users of open public transports. Pursuing details in Number 03 were used according to the observations made.

Figure 03

4. My next observation shows in amount 04 and Number 5, Average portion time per a trip Vs person. According to chart it says that the real time frame is very less comparing before situation. Relating to analyze 90% time kept. Because of this polluting of the environment, Diesel/petrol consumption, Police force man vitality, Vehicle wastage etc minimize proportionally.

Figure 04

Figure 5

Finally, through the research, my hypothesis was proved, because almost all stated that building of flyovers where in fact the traffic jammed areas are the best treatment for the issue.

CHAPTER SIX

CONCLUSIONS AND Suggestions TO OVERCOME THE CRISIS

1. In order to minimize metropolis traffic congestion, the authorities have only couple of options. The impressive solutions practice far away the following. .

a. Managing traffic using methodical light system,

b. Directing traffic through one route of the entire carriageway.

c. Handling traffic with the aid of authorized staff (police force men) d. Engineering of flyovers.

In Sri Lanka the respective authorities has designed six flyovers at highly congested areas in Colombo suburbs. These locations were selected corresponding the statistical research carried out by the experts in this field. However, it is inescapable that this effort has not been successful in few locations as predicted. Hence, in this research, I developed an argument to justify that the building of flyovers are the best remedy for this issue by obtaining the opinion from everyone as my aim for group. This is the aim for group for early on surveys carried out by the RDA in conjunction with University or college of Moratuwa to justify the engineering of flyovers in Colombo suburbs as well.

2. A well toned transportation system performs a great role for just about any country of the world. The country has developed up to certain degree throughout the time but the transport has not sufficient to cater for the increasing demand of Highway network. The building of several flyovers inside our most needed area, responsibility of the federal government but also depends on the attitude of the folks especially all individuals and pedestrians. The also should give their fullest support to the current rules and regulations.

3. Through the research, my hypothesis was proved, because almost all stated that development of flyovers where the traffic jammed areas are the best cure for the issue.

4. After following a survey and examining the data, the following are the details of recognized benefits and summarized as follows.

Avoids traffic congestion - through segregation and priority

Speedy - shortens quest times

Smooth - no violent movements vertically, laterally, or backwards/forwards

Comfortable

Compatible with pedestrians in giving pedestrianised areas

Reduces the capacity for accidents

5. Moreover in this survey and analyzing the info, the few restriction and barriers identified the following;

Complicated, and costly, because of the need for large physical structures as well as for maintenance

Their level can be obtrusive.

c. Require a significant anatomist and time-consuming to create.

6. It offers come into the notice of the metropolitan planers that in order to enhance the transfer system a multi modal approach should be produced. All in all, the main concentration is on the introduction of more highways and far better mass transportation. Goal should be given to the commuter and his requirement of a safe problem free movement space.

7. Finally, according to collected most important/secondary data. Following actions can be taken to lessening traffic jammed. Without the delay some facts are presently available rather than to standard.

Banning of most On-Street Auto parking for Vehicles in City Limits

Traffic Transmission Lights

Introduction of Replacement Roads to Main Roads

Widening of roads

Restriction of Slow Moving Traffic and Heavy Vehicles During Hurry Hours

Separating Pedestrians from Dynamic Traffic Flow

Proper maintenance of streets- specially culvert and rainy period highway situation required quickly mending system

Creating driving self-control - presently available new driving a vehicle licence card stepping into system

Implementation of New Highways Connecting Main Metropolitan areas with the Country

Electronic Traffic Monitoring Systems for Main Metropolitan areas - specially actual road jammed persons rules violated people capturing part

Discouraging Specific Vehicles Entering Cities (Peak hours box, tractor etc)

Bus Stands (Required up lift up and proceed to main road)

Construction Work (Required mixed worked drive (RDA/UDA/CEB/NWS&DB)

8. During the last decades the united states has developed greatly; therefore the substitute solutions to control traffic congestion are highly essential because of the increasing of the vehicles. The federal government also has the responsibility to put a genuine effort for this other than heading only for political successes however much difficult it is, the value should be identified and therefore should give top priority for the development of this area. You can find enough methods and intellectual ideas, which may be utilized to accomplish that. Constructing flyovers for some intersections where the traffics are occurred during the peak time is the best answer for this. But regrettably this is an area considered least during the last decades. However, number of flyovers has been built during last couple of years and commuters are receiving benefits rather than wasting time in traffic congestions. Not merely does it help to decrease the time wastage but also really helps to increase the production of private and general population areas and the market of Sri Lanka.

9. It can be figured the flyovers are good solution for traffic congestion for an intersection unless the capability of the approach links are improved through traffic management steps. This can be accepted as an efficient solution for traffic congestion in suburban areas where all links are of similar importance. However, this is a good strategy for eradicating the delay at railway crossings.

10. The continuation of the existing trend of building flyovers will support future planning and developing of built-in networked traffic management strategies, in doing so adding to the market by saving billions of Rupees to the united states as well.

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