1. Materials for Superstructure
Superstructure manufactured from different kind of materials. The knowledge of materials, it properties and use will help in achieve current economic climate and successful use of materials. Generally 60% to 70% of the total costs of construction are gain by materials. Material usage is determined by local circumstances and standard practise.
Selections of materials are differing to the constriction. Certainly, there are some major issues that consider when select materials.
? Functional requirements
? Cosmetic appearance
? Site location
? Properties of Materials- physical, chemical, mechanical, thermal, electro-mechanical and acoustic properties
There are five major materials that use greatly in construction and some other materials to enhance the building value.
1. 1 Reinforced Concrete
Concrete is the only main construction materials that may be delivered to the website in a plastic material condition. This unique quality makes concrete popular as a building material since it can be moulded to pretty much any shape or form. Concrete use in generally construction are reinforced with metal. You will discover mainly two types of cement.
i. In situ strengthened concrete. Which means manufactured in the building site and cast directly into mould or formwork till becomes stable.
? large scale of choice to create of the structures
? Less amount of space required to store
? No need of skilled labours
? No need of huge equipment like cranes
? Traffic will not impact to the construction programme
? Need additional time to get solid
? More labours required
? Formwork required. Which means getting more time
? Difficult to control the quality
? Difficult to do changes after casting
? Hard to construct during rainy weather
ii. Precast Concrete. This type made off site corresponding to requirements, carry to the website and fix.
Pre solid beams at ICC, Piliyandala
? Raise the Speed of construction by saving enough time without formwork and healing time
? Less labour push required
? Quality is high
? Weather situation do not influence
? Less space required because pre-cast cement is on site while necessary.
? Costly than in situ concrete
? Skilled labours required
? Links between items might be complicated
? Few design choices
? Need whole lot space in site to make use of heavy machines like cranes and it'll costly
? Transportation for metropolitan area will difficult during traffic
I recommend in situ strengthened concrete alternatively than precast concrete. In Sri Lanka, few precast plants available and they are far away from Kandy city. Precast items are extremely huge and need huge and long vehicles to transport. It will too costly to transport them and since Kandy has narrow streets, heavy traffic will generate.
When we consider about site plan there are curve forms before the hotel. It will get more time to create such shapes in precast. Since customer wants surface finish the build soon as you possibly can, it'll fine idea to use in situ reinforced concrete for beams, columns and slabs.
1. 2 Steel
Structural steel is the trendiest framing materials for structural in world. Material members, commonly referred to columns and beams. Steel forms are ideal to speedy construction works.
Reinforcement bars are being used in concrete. There are two types of reinforcement bars available, Tor metal bars and mild steel bars. Tor steel pubs with exterior surface deformations created by winding the metallic after elongation. Surface of tor metallic pubs made good connection with concrete. Mild metal not better like tor material since it neither twisted nor hard sur
Tor material Mild steel
? Reinforcement bars gives tensile durability to concrete
? Strong in both compression and tension
? Flexibility foe designs
? Speedup the construction
? Alterations can be done even after erecting
? Sustainable materials (reuse, recyclable)
? Safe even in earthquakes
? Long, heavy and difficult to move to the website in metropolitan areas
? At the mercy of corrosion
? Low open fire resistance
? Thermal expansion
1. 3. Timber
Hard, tough material that forms the trunks of trees and shrubs and that is used for as a structure materials. Timber has provided with a wide range of building products and materials for structure.
? Reduce energy use
? High thermal insulation in comparison to other building materials
? Good audio insulation
? Timbre forms reduce the structure time
? Perfect visual appearance
? Availableness is high
? Has Low inserted energy
? Skilled labors required
? Storage in site need more space plus some especial methods
? Low flame resistance
? Difficult to transport
? Moisture and temperature changes will benefit to the durable
For floor, staircases, entrance doors, windows and for interior partitions I would recommend timber usage. Timber will give nice impression to friends as well as for hotel timber will enhance the comfort. Also, timber and skilled labors available in Kandy for low priced.
1. 4 Bricks and Blocks
For build the wall structure, bricks or blocks are using.
Brick is a clay structural material that is made by pressing clay into blocks and losing them to get the required hardness in a kiln.
? Thermal gathering potential to store temp bricks absorb heating during the daytime and little by little releasing it at night-time, making sure interior temperature are steady throughout the day and night. The outcome is comfortable and healthy environment.
? Lasting material (recyclable)
? Low weight
? Resistance to flames is high
? deteriorate with time
? High initial cost
? Wastage is high. Lot of bricks are losing during loading, transportation and unloading
Blocks are created with a variety of Portland cement, normal water and aggregate
? Low cost
? long lasting
? High strength
? Wastage is low
? High open fire resistance
? Heavy weight to the foundation
? Poor acoustics insulation
I recommend bricks for hotel surfaces. First cost might be high. But it has better thermal insulation and it'll decrease the energy cost of hotel in future. It gives good comfort and flames level of resistance if needed. Bricks can be purchased in Kandy at the majority of the time for low priced.
1. 4 Glass
Glass is one the most flexible substance on the planet, found in many consturuction applications and in a big range of forms.
? Better aesthetic appearance
? Good heat insulation. Saves energy of HVAC
? Transparent ability really helps to get natural lightning
? Cost is high
? Security and privacy will be affected
? Maintenance cost is high
? Brittleness is high even in small impact
? Melt under very high temperature.
I recommend toughen cup structure for above 3rd floor to roof structure access. It will give fine appearance to the hotel.
Other than above major superstructure materials there exists three more materials used in construction
1) Water proofing materials
2) Acoustic materials
3) Heat insulation materials
2-Forms of Construction
When beams, columns, girders, trusses, and spandrels became a member of one to the other it called construction form and it must have stableness to the composition. Roof sections and floor surfaces which not linked to the columns (supplementary members) are not considered of the structural structure. There are many types of forms using in engineering.
The Simple Cage Forms
Most common material for this kind of form is metallic. Steel forms have many advantages plus some disadvantages.
? Steel are definitely more strong and compact.
? Can perform extremely swift build time. Because the fabrication is all done previously.
? Metal also flexible and lightweight materials which allows made for atypical types.
? Material is one of the most long-lasting materials presented, and it has the highest strength-to-weight ratio of all building metals. Which means that a lesser amount of steel is required to erect a composition which means savings in building bills.
? It really is improbable to deform, fracture, split, bend, or extend with weather.
? Steel has sustainability. Which means Metallic is 100% recyclable.
? Could be complex and costly to protect efficiently
? Not so good-looking or predictable for personal use emergence
? Maximum five reports can be approach because it may be complicated to fulfilled high wind weight requirements
? Generally limited by widths 60' often narrower. wider than 70` extensive are difficult to set up and would entail heavy equipments
? Difficult to move in urban areas
? Less flame Protection
The Beam and Slab forms (in situ concrete)
This type is mainly utilization in world. With strengthened concrete it can get better.
? Reinforced concrete can take more insert and will not wear easily
? Affordable for medium size constructions
? Higher flames resistance capability
? Will get any architectural view as customer need
? Easily build even in cities because of in situ concrete
? Can bear heavy breeze fill when consider high rise buildings
? Gradual speed of building. Because it can take more days to cure the concrete
? Also, slow construction swiftness means Higher expenses to labour
? Suitable for small and medium type constructions. Because it can t get long course in form
Wholly Precast Concrete Forms
Precast concrete form casting concrete in a reusable mould or "form" which cured in a controlled background, transferred to the structure site and match place.
? Quick build time of form erection.
? It offers design flexibility. This means construct any shape, size, and structure. Precast form allow for irregular lengths and widths.
? Low priced in structure. The production of the major form components of the composition off-site reduce the site labour factor significantly, which reduce site costs and time.
? Higher fire resistance
? Strong and better longevity.
? Weight and level of the individual components will be more. Because of that, travelling is difficult when site in urban area.
? Sometimes cranes could use for assemble. If site doesn t have sufficient site access in case site is small it could arise some inconvenience
? In urban areas some safe practices issues may occurs, because of threat of public safe practices. When try to manage the safeness it become more costly.
Cantilever can be an engineering expression discussing a structural form method where load is approved to a column by tough mounting hint. Cantilever construction enable long structures without external column.
? Architects and technical engineers use cantilever form structures for the overhang designs to provide visual view.
? save horizontal space
? Effective when the ground bearing capacity is low. Because there are no need of earth floor
? Can t use for high rise buildings because it s difficult keep the blowing wind load
Propped Cantilever Forms
This type forms can bear blowing wind fill more with the double stanchions and the finish of the cantilever is less weigh comparing with above.
? Designed for bear wind insert (Lateral loads)
? In a position to apply for high surge buildings
? Due to heavy steel the price is high
Parallel (ongoing) Beam forms
With principal and secondary beams, these kinds of varieties are developed.
? Almost several width or level can be achieve and column location can be different
? Enough room to run wires and service ducts through slab
? May be use with other systems together with block, conventional material.
? Total building height will be raise because, the slab thickness is high
? Cost is high because of more steel usage
? Less visual appearance
When we consider about varieties with steel, there are some more options with relate with simple cage forms, cantilever varieties, propped cantilever varieties and parallel beam forms.
Non-composite Top Floors
Two types of non amalgamated upper flooring presented;
i. Precast Hollow Main Concrete Planks
Also famous as a voided slab or hollow center plank is a precast slab of pressurised cement.
? Hollow center slabs are damage to lengths to suit the composition design before going out of the plant, leading to safe and fast building and with less cost
? Hollow center slabs get long course (4m to 8m), leading to flexible space with smaller quantity of beams, supporting columns and walls.
? Costly formwork and non permanent props are reducing.
? Have a one hour fire amount of resistance.
? Slots are reducing the weight and it can use to accommodates services, like ducts, pipes, cables
? Skilled labours and cranes must fit the planks and it will costly
? Bones between planks are complicated and much more expensive
? Transportation will be difficult in cities and site must have enough space to carry crane
ii. In Situ Reinforced Concrete Slabs Built off Permanent Formwork
In this system in situ reinforce cement put on metal deck and the formwork (metallic deck) will not remove later. Usually depth of slab between 100mm to 225mm. This approach can cover 4m to 7. 5m.
? Short term formwork not required. It reduce time waste
? Metallic deck act as additional reinforcement to the concrete
? Durable and high strength
? The connections are more technical and the decking is more complicated
Composite Upper Floors
There are four types of methods available
i. Precast Hollow Main Concrete Planks
When material and Precast Hollow Key Concrete Planks lying along, it becomes amalgamated upper floor. Metal nails are employing for combine both. It could cover 12m span.
Advantages and Negatives are identical to non- composite higher floors. But this type is better and stronger than non-composite. Also much expensive than non- composite.
ii. In Situ Reinforced Concrete Slabs Built off Permanent Formwork
The blend of in situ strengthened concrete and steel beams, by metallic nails called as amalgamated upper floor. This type can cover 12m course.
Besides more strong, durable and high cost, this kind has same advantages and disadvantages of non-composite top floors.
iii. Sleek floor or Slim deck
The key difference of the assembly would be that the helping beams are comprising inside the depth of the concrete slab. This is achieved via promoting the slab off the base flanges of the beams.
This type really helps to reduce the building height and incredibly economical than other styles. It can cover up to 9m period.
iv. Cellular Composite Beam flooring surfaces and Composite Truss Floors
Commercial buildings and factories are using this type. The beam depth is high and beams act as truss. Self weights of beams are low because there are slots in beams and it leads the span up to 18m.
The last framework development is slab building. A couple of six types of slab development methods.
i. Flat Slab
This type medication dosage not has any beams and uses the in situ reinforced concrete. Table forms and flying varieties are use as formwork. Will get course up to 11m and reduce building elevation because slab thickness is low
? May use for fast construction
? Simple to concrete when working with table varieties or flying forms. Time is not wasting
? Low of the in durability. It most unlikely to the punching shear forces because there are no beams
ii. Sturdy Slab With Drops
In this kind slab has drops on underlying part every column. Can get span 5m to 10m.
? It could keep punching shear force more than chiseled slab
? can get good visual appearance by decorating or moulding the drops
? long span(5m to 10m) decrease the column cost.
? Speed of building is less than level slab because drops require some more time.
? Expensive than toned slab
iii. Ribbed Slab
Band and conventional beams are in this type. This slab system can hide to8m period.
? Useful for accommodates services, like ducts, pipes, cords through slab
? Weight of the slab is higher. There for the columns and groundwork sizes must meet slab requirements
? Construction speed is low since great deal of formwork
iv. Troughed Slab With Integral Beams
In this kind slab width is low and it have course up to 12. 5m. desk form can be use as formwork
? Power is high
? Gain long span
? Structure will be slow since formwork
v. Waffle Slab
This type is a reinforced-concrete roof and roof development having a rectangle grid of profound ribs with coffer in the interstices. This kind can cover even 16m span
? No beams required
? fine appearance
? No need of suspended ceiling
vi. Tunnel Forms
There are no columns in this type sorts. Using for hotel, home constructions. All of the load carry by vertical surfaces instead for columns.
? High hearth resistance
? Isolation from neighbouring room give more privacy
? Fast structure because of easy formwork
? Expenses is high
I recommend the beam and slab form and wholly precast concrete form. When consider about client dependence on above hotel engineering job he need the building as soon as possible. Wholly precast concrete form will suit for fast development, but because of heavy traffic during morning, it'll be difficult to transport precast items and metallic frames. Since of these facts the most suitable type is beam and slab form. Due to in situ concrete, you will see no considering about traffic. But engineering time will be effected. Building cost will be low than precast concrete form and preserved expenditure can be use for roof construction in further.
3. Flat Rooftop Construction
Any roofing when the pitch significantly less than 5` is named a flat rooftop. A flat roofing doesn't have the improvement of gravity to reduce normal water from the rooftop. , therefore it s important to add a covering that provides a damp barrier, as well as a system to move the water off of the roof after rain.
There are many types of flat roof structure;
1) Built-up Roofing
A built-up roof covering is contain laying down lots of layers of bitumen and water resistant materials and accompanied by gravel cover. Gravel for flames protection as well as officer from ft. passage and the sun. The putting in process commonly needs apply hot bitumen to bond between layers.
Multi-layered system offer extra shield, reducing the danger for water leaks. In addition, it easier to mount because, it does not have complex framework. Built-up roof covering is long previous since it include mat of wine glass fibre reinforcement and bitumen make grate mixture between layers. This kind is very economical and easy to correct and maintain though it have high original cost.
2) Mastic Asphalt Level Roofing
Combination of clay and bitumen is using for this type of level roof. Asphalt for the reason that it form an extremely thick solid-surface material under typical heat circumstances. That one is principally long-lasting flat roofing. Mastic asphalt is durable drinking water proofing membrane. It is very flexible as well. Mastic asphalt is non-toxic, recyclable, and odourless and can endure up excessive temperatures.
Mastic asphalt is proper for most roof constructions only when the deck does not bend too much. It's the perfect material for stop and beam, concrete, hardwood fibre slab and properly designed timber roofs.
It is generally laid in two jackets over a separating membrane of dark outer layer experienced. If there is whichever insufficient semester on the top, mastic asphalt can be laid to remove standing water. It really is fine to protect the asphalt from U. V. degradation and warm build-up by applying a solar soaked up paint.
3) Single-Ply roofing
Single-ply roofing uses a plastic membrane to give waterproofing for the roofing. The membrane can be mechanically fixed securely to the roofing, completely adhered with an adhesive, or ballasted. One disadvantage of this type could it be requires more labour cost to create.
4) Liquid Coatings
Liquid coatings are largely used for commercial and large roofs or where a normal single-ply roof top will never be good. The liquid roof covering coatings can be employed to various materials including felt, concrete, asbestos, metallic and much more. The Liquid rooftop coating will present a long enduring shielding result. This kind is easy to use, even for this areas and economical. The durable is high and it reduce the maintain cost. But impossible to obtain uniformed thickness.
5) Green roof
A green rooftop is a roofing of a framework that is somewhat or totally roofed with vegetation and land, planted above a waterproofing membrane. It could also contain additional layers like a root barrier and drainage and irrigation systems. It provides visual benefits, better air quality and coverage from UV. The original cost and keep maintaining cost is very high.
Green roof structure has two types;
i. Intensive (dynamic) inexperienced roof
Intensive (dynamic) renewable roofs include deep growing heavy trees that support a mixture of panorama look and progress. It accessible and used as interesting space
ii. In depth (passive) renewable roof
Extensive green roof covering have a slender growing plant life and the landscaping is designed to be more economically, requiring less maintain than an intensive green rooftop system. Extensive inexperienced roof is aren't as much of expensive like intensive system, because they're lighter and need less structural sustain and need less regular maintenance.
I recommend considerable type green rooftop system for above hotel job. Mainly because it'll increase visual appearance of the hotel and friends will similar to the latest type. Green rooftop will take up fresh turn to the hotel because in Kandy, often in Sri Lank renewable roof is unusual type. Primary cost may be high but, maintenance cost will be less because raining and smooth light from the sun is common climate in Kandy. According to the building plan, renewable roof can build the most notable of the rooms 10 to 18. It'll give oxygen to mentioned rooms and above 3rd floor reception area can protected with glass structure for natural lightning and access for the roof structure.
4. Sustainability while construction
The expression lasting (telling the thought of stable, prolonged or ongoing) is translated to some terms as durable. So, ecological composition can be recognized as a durable construction. Sustainable engineering has special strategy and different priorities in various countries. A few of them recognize cost-effective and interpersonal, cultural aspects as part of their sustainable development outline, hence, ecological construction is illustrate as a division of sustainable development, which includes plan, tendering, site layout, and organization, material selection, recycling, and waste material minimization.
There are some guidelines for sustainable development,
Minimization of source of information consumption
Maximization of source of information reuse
Use renewable and recyclable resources
Protect the natural environment
Create a wholesome and non-toxic environment
Pursue quality in creating the built environment.
When starting hotel development in metropolitan area like Kandy, there are many things to consider. The key area where in fact the sustainable structure can be improved by view carefully about the built-in plan of the entire project. Every part of a building task has an effect on each task. The ecological design of a task must consider all the related elements that thinking about the orientation, structure, location, structure.
Creating sustainable development start with suited site selection. Analysis of the orientation of the structure, involves how the construction will relate with climate. It s fine if the constructor can leave the majority of the vegetation, specially large trees that can be use for hotel elegance. It is more conditions friendly if increase use of labours, without always using vehicles to transport in site. It reduces the air pollution.
Waste management is an integral factor for ecological design. If polluted chemical or sturdy matters combination with this it'll lead to environmental hazard of the region. The main essential aspect should be the minimum impact to the surroundings.
The energy using when build the hotel, an energy useful methods can decrease energy costs and reduce harmful impact to the environment. Also using less embodied energy options for the construction, and using substitute energy sources rather than gasoline or other energy resources which pollute environment.
When choosing the materials for the hotel building, use of less embodied materials can lead the construction to the ecological during pre building phase. Using reuse materials, less wastage of materials, and proper storage space of material can gain the high material efficiency. By innovative methods and modern engineering methods, the hotel will gain better sustainability.
5. Safeness of the Structure Site
The building industry identified out from other employments as having one of the maximum worker injury and casualty rates. Construction consists of an extremely little percentage of the entire labour force. Up to now, the speed for non-fatal traumas and illnesses go beyond that of several other sectors. Some studies have exposed that a somewhat large percentage of construction crashes can be stop, reduced, or prevented by assembly better options in the design and establishing stages of any project. When package with construction safe practices in the design and scheduling phase, because of this, can have a large impact on minimizing injuries and the cost related with safety.
Making insurance policies, well organizing, Planning and put into operation, performance measuring and looking at is key factors which lead to successful in health and security management.
As according to the CDM regulation 2007, there are some essential making risk assignment which help to reduce hazards in hotel construction site.
1) Learning about the hazards
Identifying what exactly are the risks in site. When;
? Slips, trips and falls
? Fall when working at height
? Mobile vegetable and vehicles
? Low or high temperature
? Machines operating
? Noise and Vibration
? Manual handling
2) Who'll be affect and how?
Every person has some risk when they working in site. Staff during working hours, contactors and office staff during site visit and supervision. Etc.
3) Risk Evaluation
After identified the chance, there will need to have some action to avoid them. It may be an action of totally get rid of the threat or control of risk.
? Get rid of the hazard
For example, instead of using acids to unblock drains, use drain rods. It prevent chemical hazard.
? Control the hazard
Example is using drinking water suppression to regulate dust.
Provide personal protective equipments
Such as goggles (vision protectors), ear protectors, safeness helmets, gloves, face visors, boots
Working at height
Sign planks and notice
Most dangers can control by giving training to individuals. Training will include correct means of erecting and using scaffoldings, ladders, machines, etc.
4) Saving the findings
By recording dangers which already happen, it can help to avoid or control it in further.
5) Researching of records and revising them if need
If hazard arise again or when bring new instruments, machinery, materials, people or new solution to site, overview of early ones will help to prevent or control hazarders.
Alternative Energy Options for the structure work
There is some main choice energy options use now days,
? Solar power
? Blowing wind power
? Geothermal power
? Tidal power
? Hydro electric power
As a power source, fuel enhance pollution and some time it is dangerous to personnel when flame. Above hotel structure in Kandy solar power is an substitute energy sources rather than fuel.
? Solar power
In Kandy area light from the sun is often most of the time. Solar electricity can be use for work some small electronic machines
Mobile solar panels
6. Modification of Buildings
When new building connects to a vintage one there are a few basic factors that ought to consider.
? Types of construction.
The new area of the building should hook up with same material which includes old building. In current subject matter old structure constructed with beam and slab form, and new framework also should be that method to success modification.
The new part of the building shouldn't disturb old ones visual. Outdoor openings should maintain
? Weather tightness
New part must have weather and normal water proofing as identical to old one.
? Deviation in floor level
It is an improved to check out same floor levels in new part with old part. If not there will a little extra expenditures for placing stairs or mounting an elevators, escalators.
? Compatibility of materials
If any materials fails to maintain good condition, that incompatibility material should be remove and replace new material. Often it is necessary to introduce parting layers
? Mode of linkage
For best practical result, old building and new building should incorporate together. Which may be direct interconnection between two buildings like part expansion or indirect interconnection like using corridor or block
? Operating factors
This factor regarding environment and protection. It includes noises/dust/fume control, welding control, protecting against collateral damages, safety, screening, security, retains natural and artificial lighting
When we consider about vertical modification, it is immediately affecting to the building blocks. Underpinning work will consider for above hotel task.
Underpinning is the putting in place of non permanent or permanent keep to an existing foundation to provide either further depth or enhance in bearing capacity.
First, the earth beneath the pile cover is excavating in a variety enough to let the putting in a fresh pile. Then, couple of hydraulic jacks is mounted to the underneath of the pile cover. After positioning the earliest part, the hydraulic jacks are extended and the part pushed into the globe far-off enough to let investing in of the next part. The bond fishing rod is then threaded into the end of the installed part; resin was positioned around the club and the very best face of the pile part, and another part was threaded onto the connection fishing rod analytical from the installed part. The pile parts are tightened using a string wrench to a torque. After screening, jacks will removed
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