Environmental Impact Diagnosis Survey On Malaysian International airport Project Engineering Essay

The first system to assess the environmental impact was developed by US in 1970, Environmental Impact Diagnosis (EIA) has been used widely around the world and it is just about the most important tools in executed any jobs or planning process. As yet, almost 55 countries have needs to use formal EIA system dimension, not only that about 100 countries have implement the EIA methods system (Haklay et al. , 1998). Compared to other countries nowadays, Malaysia has been the very best countries to conform with EIA. Like a evidence Malaysia has develop the Environmental Quality Work 1974 in Third Malaysia Plan, Division of Environment and an Environmental Quality Council has been installation to smooth the look process in the nationwide level. In Environment Quality Function 1984, section 34A lengthened the surroundings impact diagnosis legislation; however in 1986 the take action amends that want assessment for many private and public projects which might be have high effect on the surroundings. Besides that, in 1998 EIA will be implemented as whole and managed to get mandatory to all or any the job to be applied (Barroe, 1997).

Environmental assessment survey intended to examine the environmental effects of airport project suggested by Janji Manis Firm (JMC) to replace the new air port in Subang to Sepang, as what been stated in the JMC Development Intend to build an air port in the administrative centre city of Malaysia relating to fulfil the needs of the globalization and demand of the marketplace. Besides that, the current airport necessary to cater to market demand for the air-port with increasing numbers of consumers, thus new airport can supplies the demand of the users. However, based on the Department of Environment of Malaysia, any project to be carried out must get the approval from the section to ensure that the task wouldn't normally be jeopardized the surroundings in airport project area. Besides that, the task also must include all formalities needed such as giving briefing program to the home of the place included, local councils, point out authority, agencies and different environmental related people. For example giving justification to the culture in Sepang where in fact the airport job to be applied. Besides that, there are several procedures have to be completed prior to the decision to permit the job to be use.

Among the methods involve are, primary assessment, detailed assessment and review diagnosis report. Where primary assessment main goals are to study the project proposal and choose the best task options which are available, secondly, identify and assimilate into the job planning to appropriate abatement and mitigating appropriate methods; and also to identify important residual on the environmental effects. Besides that, in second treatment in preparing precise analysis done by describes the significant enduring environmental impacts that were predicted from the final project plan ready; to designate the mitigating and the abatement procedures needed in the final project prep; and identify the expenses on environment and the benefits can be obtain from the international airport project to the neighborhood community involved with order for critically review the specific assessment reports the steps needed are by assessing the development and costs of the environmental and great things about the final job intend to the modern culture; to formulate and recommending and guidelines to the project that been approved to the relevant expert so that the project can be implemented.

In the other hands, EIA requires detail analysis because of probable effects to the environment from the air port task. EIAs require systematic analysis of the actual impacts, secondly the projects to be completed with proposal of mitigation steps, thirdly, to get the depth economics valuation of the impact and recommending the best alternative to be choose, and finally be able to prepare the environmental management plan.

The Process in Preparing EIA

Every EIA needs the Terms of Research (TOR) which is often develop via scoping. The end result expected through scoping are

Identify the possibility effect on environment or other concerns on environment to be looked at and also have to further investigate from EIA article.

Identify components of the environment that need comprehensive study.

Determine the correct method and plan that appropriate in order to carry out EIA study.

Identify the specific interest that might be occur in appointment prior to the EIA been perform.

Identify the necessity appropriately directly into EIA framework especially prior to the project can be implemented.

The next step of EIA examination must follow the key important activities of the airport terminal project

Describing Environmental Condition of the brand new Airport Task Area

It is essential to run the EIA study by analyzing the baseline information about the region biophysical, social and economic, which will be the mention of the new airport project. Therefore, based on the proposal of new airport in Sepang supply the appropriate information on the geology of the area which mostly the land that seed hand. Furthermore, the land is suitable because its good composition of the garden soil. Thus such area offers good probable to build the new airport terminal.

The location between your new air port area and Subang (current) location is 55. 6 kilometers to south of Malaysia, and is also bounded by Nilai Highway, Lekas Highway and Government Highway that connecting brief distance and easy way to new air port location. Furthermore, the new air-port location has some indigenous foliage, described as oil hand plantation, but the majority of the region is mostly vacant. Previously the area was occupying Felda Corporation, however the land was beneficial for commercial and development thus it's been given the power to JMC to create the new airport terminal for the reason that particular location. Besides that, until today there have been no threatened of ecological was reported in that area by Office of Environment of Malaysia.

However, to be able to sustain the environment the new airport terminal job will consider the preservation of environment, which mostly by sustaining the rest of the land by hand plantation and the new air-port will be build predicated on green technology and can also sustaining three main elements of lasting, that is environment, economics and social. Besides that, the located area also accommodating the crop industry and the task will distract the habitat however it is presumed that the habitat can be transferred to the nearest location near Tiroi and the area is believed having significant potential to place the habitat that require to be sustain.

Furthermore, the new air port location is located far away from property area and also satellite area which will ensure that the positioning will not distract the dwelling or society in Sepang. Additionally, this project can offer the local population of the economical development by offering careers and vehicles development with good system and condition of street and many aspects that may effects the local lifestyle or living opportunities.

Environmental Impacts From the New Airport Project


The location of new air-port is bounded by Federal Highway and encircled by Jalan Utara and Jalan Semangat Bypass. The positioning can be gain access to via Federal Highway using Nilai Exit, and everything kind of vehicles, including semitrailers, commercial vehicles and flat trucks provides the materials of building or the essential oil palm industries travel. As an additional the nearest hand plantation company has some limitation to be obeyed, anticipated to limited use of Jalan Utara and Semangat like the bridge. Currently about 15, 000 are vehicles using the road way along Jalan Utara and Jalan Semangat.

Besides that, according to Average weekday traffic stream 2008/09 has discovered that the average total of traffic throughout the optimum hour (7:15 am to 8:15am) was about 3, 000 vehicles southbound, and 550 vehicles westbound. Furthermore, the normal traffic surge for the noon peak time (5:10 pm to 6:15pm) involves about 590 vehicles southbound, and 790 vehicles westbound. Furthermore, JMC has indomitable that the new air port will raise the traffic about 2. 2% (340 vehicles) of present daily of the traffic on weekdays. Jalan Utara is a three street wideway. As a results JMC has plan discussions with the neighborhood authority for Malaysia Planning and Infrastructure (MPI) on the possibility of the road being upgraded to a four lane dual roadway in the medium to lasting.

The main task for JMC is when the public increased about the increased the issues of traffic in the area. Particularly they are matter about the danger on the safeness of their children and neighbouring community, and just how do Jalan Utara to absorb the excess vehicles come to their area roadway. In other hands, JMC has prepared to work with the airport terminal site from Jalan Utara. Both Jalan Utara and Jalan Semangat can only just maintain the semi-trucks, and the permits are extracted from the STATE of Negeri Embilan to permit Double-Big trucks on those particular highways. Jalan Utara also has a large bridge (Jalan Utarra Bridge) in excess of a gas produces which will have to be upgraded if Double-Big trucks are to access on the bridge. JMC has focused on face the price involve to upgrade the bridge if required to do so. JMC has recommended three diverse traffic circumstances in the MDP. Situation 1 is to attempt with no development on the highways, and apply the semi-trailers for materials travel. Situation 2 is to get the necessary permits, and improve the bridge on Jalan Utara, to allow Double-Big vehicles to get into the highways. Situation 3 is by obtaining permits for Double-Big vehicles to go into Jalan Utara, however they need to take a road that not using the bridge. JMC of course prefers Situation 1 at this time. JMC also offers taken to use it the public problems in the MDP as follows

The major concern for the children is the traditional western portion of Jalan Utara. JMC projects to initiate truck drivers not to type in that part of road;

All road unit installation will be obeyed to the endorsement with the relevant right, and the amount of trips, transfer of services with every other issue will be integrated; and

Raw materials of the jobs will only be elated between 6:10am and 6:10pm. Around 10 pick up truck (semi-trailers) travels are likely to be used during peak times.


The new airport project will require JMC to updates the prevailing services that available, and also to supply the new services that necessary. The job area is located adjacent to a preexisting gas processing of Petronas, and also has access to the electricity area. JMC offers to upgrade the electricity and enhance the area power supply, and also to access the gas production so that they will meet up with the requirements of a airport structure.

Area Sewage Treatment

The task site is not getting serviced by sewer mains to the neighborhood, and JMC has plans to install a nutritional replace on-site treatment product needed. Specialist for JMC has used to use it that:

The machine firstly must be able to hold the quantity of waste generated, and could need local council authority and Health Office of Malaysia agreement;

A sewage disposal area would be needed to be accepted and would also have to be at least 36m from the nearest bay

Sewage removal by using irrigation would not be appropriate for location where in fact the water table is located or too near the ground surface system;

Blended soils may be needed under the irrigated location in environmentally hypersensitive location and also to prevent nutrient release to the groundwater system.

Disproportionate release of nutrients to the site could also result in blemish of waterways. JMC hasn't point up that concern in the MDP.


The location needed a ring central part to carry town drinking water to the place for fire-fighting. JMC make clear that mostly the water used in building will be sourced from surplus and irk drinking water, and also with regards to the available quality of the bore water system. Besides that, storm water drainage prepared to be changed to be able to acquire run-off from the cemented and rooftop location and it again will then be transferred to some drainage place available. JMC suggest re-using almost all of this drinking water for structure and particles control. Additionally, some of that used water may be spoiled with unwanted silt and clay, so JMC suggest coating the first installation water pond to avoid leakage. JMC also suggest focusing on an interceptor pit directly into thee handle removal of any olive oil residues system, in the case if unintentional spillage that may happen.


In other palm the public matter was also point up about the light on the positioning impacting to the flora and fauna in the involve area, and personal areas nearby. JMC suggests focusing the equipment and lighting on the traffic host to the task area near by. JMC also projects to put additional outside light thus that will ensure it will not obstruct with the amenity of neighbours place. All exterior lighting organized will be located in unity with the Malaysia Standard (1999).


Airport construction activities may cause dust during floor trouble in engaged area. However, this isn't expected to be happen or a problem during the working phase of the engineering, as external areas will be impermeable, and restricted dust is likely to be made by strict control. Thus, general population worries raised the problem of particles from the project. JMC has promised to minimize the dust by put in work the standard dust control dimension such as wind flow fencing, hydro-mulching and spraying drinking water.


Another aspects need to be consider by JMC is noises levels that will increases during the structure of the new air port at the expected area. Besides that, heavy earthmoving tools, trucking of spoil and dewatering, will contain the possible to create high volume of noise through the new airport development. Increased of sound will also happen by the trucks and other equipment related such as forklifts during operation of the job. However, general population concerns of the issues have been elevated especially about the increased noise amount from equipment and vehicles used. JMC plan that all equipment will be preserved in good working condition and with the typical noise mufflers will be used to ensure unnecessary noise will not be generated. Furthermore, airport terminal construction activities will be only happen during the morning, and everything the trucks will only be enter and leave the involved area between 6. 10am and 6. 10pm during businesses time. JMC in addition has promised to execute the ambient noises monitoring system for each and every three months time during working period, and the yearly monitoring after normal procedures originated.

Flora and Fauna


The location is largely cleared of shrubbery. However, JMC suggest clearing the residual remainder plant life on the 28ha area, with remainder shrubbery being preserved on the prepared perimeter and non development place. The parts of the area will be greatly re-vegetated with appropriate local species to give a visible and resonance hurdle of the job. JMC also declares that the job area has been recognized by MDP as a "no priority" place and completely under the MDP Get better at Plan 2008 "Concern43 and 'No Top priority' place won't issue to help expand assessment needed". The project area, Sepang Oil Hand plantation and the adjacent vegetation in addition has been included into a Farm Forever area credited its nature diversity importance. Plantation Forever is a Malaysia Government idea and "identifies regionally important farmland to be reserved and limited forever". However, the public concerns have been again point out about the consequences of fluoride emissions on the shrubbery and the probability of lack of the Farm Forever area. The consequences of fluoride emissions are taken to action in the part Emissions. JMC in addition has stated that Plantation Forever is a Negeri Sembilan Talk about based development device that's not dependable with the Malaysia Grasp Planning process


There a number of fauna surveys have been done by DOE of Malaysia on Sepang land. DOE has formally recorded 159 kinds of vertebrates living organisms, but with only a fairly small amount occurring in the job area. Besides that, a number of scheduled endangered species may be developing on the area. JMC also suggests that prior to any clearing is work on, JMC will responsible to conduct a review to position any related varieties, and take them off from the area in concurrence with WWF rule. Corresponding to EPBC Function 1999 JMC would have to attain a component 15 permit to relocate the detailed species in any Commonwealth land countries.

Air Emissions

Airport project likely to emit various sparkling pollutants in to the located area of the atmosphere. Those contaminants mentioned include oxides of Nitrogen (NOx), volatile organic ingredients (VOC), oxides of Carbon (COx) oxides of Sulphur (SOx), Hydrogen Fluoride (HF), and Hydrochloric Acid (HCl). Normally emissions are created mostly by the "placing" phase of airport project working.

Health Impacts

'Acidic gases' from new air port project expecting to correlate with varies aspect of the health effects to the culture. The health influences effects include the problem of itchy sight and particularly influencing asthmatics, respiratory level of sensitivity. Furthermore, gaseous emissions also could be mainly harmful to the community with already facing respiratory system problems before. Besides that, the main focus for health problems are about the prevailing development task in the Sepang area have been explain in the previous yr. The Sepang Principal School were sealed in 1998, after the teachers and students of this institution complained of eyes, throat, nose area and nasal area bleeds, burnt lips and pores and skin irritations problems. As the results the Ministry of Health of Malaysia run the investigations to study at the emissions from the close development task and plantation process.

The problems triggered by high level of poisonous emissions, such as sulphur dioxide, nitrogen oxides and hydrogen fluoride were absorb in the area air, however scheduled to circumstances there were no summary was strained on the cause of the pollutants in Sepang. Nonetheless, the neighborhood Medical center incinerator was finished and the institution nearby was later relocated to suitable place in Sepang. JMC reported that all emissions have to be within the mentioned strategy as uncovered by the modelling of the plan. JMC also explain that there was no exact proven that the immediate facts to relation the task emissions to the fitness of residents who complaints at Sepang Principal School. Though, there have been many reports of difficult health trouble around lively farming projects in Sepang. The reported health issues also could be source by short time events when the emissions have within the guideline volume stated. JMC has given a health risk way of measuring from the Office of Chemical substance of Malaysia. That dimension is dependant on the backdrop level of air ambient at Negeri Sembilan, which is 4-7km from the new Sepang air-port. Additionally, Risk Index (HI) was designed predicated on the quantity of Health Quotient (HQ) of every pollutant factor. Besides that, the Greetings has been used to decide the chance of growing property of diverse pollutants factor.

Besides that, the compliance of the Government of Malaysia has written remarks on the situation of health impacts commencing medical Office of Malaysia (HDoM). However, the HDoM explain that "the explained level of chemicals can all effects the respiratory system and present the high impact and certainly can results the health and could be cumulative in given system". The HDoM also describe that the measured HI of 0. 6 for the international airport task, 2. 08 in the collective impact of JMC's job plan, and the present setting assess wouldn't normally be insignificant, as the pollutants factor in issue are respiratory system irritants on health. The HDoM turned out "changes in respiratory morbidity, together with hospital registration, typically for asthmatics circumstance, tend at verdict specifications of the given substances and are believed to have a probable impact of the area needlessly to say". Furthermore, HDoM explain in the condotion that cannot be complete in factor on vitality influences without added in turn given. In response to the HDoM remarks, JMC employed Cemerlang Associates Pty Ltd to testimony on supplementary in collection and explanation relating to health risk analysis. Besides that, the testimony talks about that whenever using HQ and HIis standard preparation, and is also a typical method that has a potential to overvalue the hazard, and when the HQ value is bigger than 1 it ought to be research further. JMC also query some portion of the data utilized by HDoM to sketch its report, and describe that this statistics found in Department of Chemical of Malaysia research are imitative from the maximum setting up subsistence which exist on diverse term. Though, as dominant exceeding, this analysis is mainly imitative from in collection from Negeri Sembilan, rather than the new air port area.

The DoE Air-port Licensing Policy (2002) was set you back point the civic problems about the health effects from the emissions and the prevailing farm business area. Furthermore, it express: "It is obvious because the mass of confirmation over some years that contact to emissions of acid gas (mainly HCl, with some the help of HF) have source verifiable of unpleasant health of the effects, above all respiratory system awareness and itchy eyes". The plan document describes the variety of factors take into consideration to find out ambient quality criteria of air for needed acid gases omitted, and advised procedure for load emissions to point them. Yet another public worries have been explain that there are at present health problems that due to the gas emissions happen from the prevailing projects and business, and that development of new job will give and extra to the pollutant triggered. The effective contaminant freight will be accepted to drop when the DoE project policy on shedding the emissions is totally devote work.

Management, Monitoring and Compliance Relating to New Air port Project

A vital aspect in shaping the adequacy of a plan is the ability to forecast and administer the impacts with buoyancy. The supervision of the program requires taking place in mutually the development and functioning level. Throughout the construction stage of the plan, criterion structure management to be approximated to be able to sufficiently point out all kind impacts on environmentally friendly, as those results can be estimated with buoyancy. Nonetheless, the effective level is much more challenging as proved by the DoE Airport Policy (2002) that can be found a variety of insignificant in the rules and monitoring of the works of other Sepang plantation works. Besides that, you may still find uncertainties on the working side of the plan mainly with consider to the new deposition equilibrium method for ensuring the adequate volume of the emissions that omitted by the job. These suspicions are over value by the fine detail that the foundation and explanation of inputs to the procedure have not yet been concluded. A numeral of community submissions have point out worries about whether the plan center can be given with the necessary degree of severity. The DoE International airport Licensing Policy (2002) concentrates that the fact in a sound conformity system can be complicated to manage even for a authorities team with skill and possessions to manage all commercial facilities in the united states. The DoE Airport Licensing Policy (2002) has organized new strategy of amendable and monitoring observance. It has raises the regulatory problems for DoE and it also might need to take the time ahead of it acquires the data and sympathetic of the developing functions to be convinced that it will attain ongoing fulfilment. An importance adaptive of your management method will almost positively be necessary in attaining happening observance given the reservations concerned. JMC have discussed that there are sufficient authoritarian systems in place to administer the air-port center required. It clarifies that this only can be done throughout the requests of the Airports Action 1996, and via hire activities with Negeri Sembilan. Furthermore, guideline through Government legislation is often necessary for developed facilities like the international airport project. Ideal knowledge and must legalize manufacturing facilities commonly include the stop work area, the ability to carry out arbitrary review and test on the emissions omitted, and a perceptive of material and engineering treatment when developing and evaluate a lot balance methods. The plan is to regulate the air-port in Sepang is somewhat diverse from existing improvements of the commercial air port, and current new authoritarian problems for the Section of Transfer. Negeri Sembilan condition has also promised that it can control the sensitive through leasing engagements. Conversely the guideline of such performance through hiring with the private organization presents the challenges. Negeri Sembilan state has also marks the probability of astringent DoE to point the weakness of authoritarian experience in business with industrialized facilities that exist. In other palm, Negeri Sembilan point out itself is not established to the same parliamentary requirements as own federal, with the respect to the general public perfection and responsibility.

Deparmental Synopsis on the Air port Project

Following is the format of the Departmental proposal point in above

The traffic solution situation 1 wills outcome in a imperfect effects on community areas provided that the trucks won't use the traditional western part of Jalan Utara.

Standard guidance that options can point the environmental ramifications of improvement and providing the assistance such as lamps, water, electric power and sewage.

The Section of the Environment of Malaysia need to build up the Air port Licensing Coverage 2002 to point the difficult environmental ramifications of existing and future projects, and the Negeri Sembilan status claims that the program is contradictory with the planning policies designed. Furthermore, given such factors with the general public worries about the program, the procedural researches given to date are not assessed sufficient to handle probable effects. The problem of other fatalities of amenity, like house requirements is a issue of concern for the Minister for Move.

Standard supervision method can point environmentally friendly results from the dust particles.

Standard supervision method can point environmentally friendly effects from noises.

Standard supervision method can point environmentally friendly effects that may happen from changes on the hydrology system.

No results should eventually Sepang if the groundwater and shell water flows kept from the area.

No studies were operate on the area presently to assess the worthiness of the remainder shrubbery, or their uses by the detailed endangered types are. As a result even if the region is despoiled, no remarks can be haggard by the Section of environment on the significance of the region for outlined endangered kinds. JMC has not prepared any alleviation method other then the translocation.

Although a summary can be pinched that it's probable to boundary 'acid gas' emitted by the choosing careful types of material, JMC has not been established that it ought to be capable to admittance that materials, or reporting information on the essential desires of the chemical substance masterpiece of the material to meet up with the needed goal.

JMC explain that the program should complies with the safety wants of Air Services, and the required stack elevation of material to meets the guidelines.

JMC has working with the modelling on air emissions omitted using the best available in series. Nonetheless no data of the ambient air quality on the relevant pollutants was accessible for the organized airport terminal area. Given the inefficiency directed, the Department is not really satisfied that the in collection given to day is properly thorough to summary that the modelling directed air quality worries. Therefore the Team will not be secure that the plan won't conclude in difficult health from the effects, if only as of the hesitation about the effective pollutant insert and the acceleration with which existing jobs will reduce their emissions that omitted by the industries.

Standard business method can point the effects of environmentally friendly from the stench.

The program will demand with a greater authoritarian participation than usual airport improvements. Dictatorial employees with appropriate experience related to air-port procedures and also with the capability to interfere in those important businesses, if needed, will be necessary in given that assurance an adaptive group method can consequence in a sound observance system. The sufficiency of the lively authoritarian powers structured from the Airports Act 1996, as well as the effectiveness of the Division of Transport to control such actions, is a concern for the Minister of Transfer to consider when they prepared on the adequacy of the recommendation.


This job plan has point out important on general population worries through the community review term. The Team also remarks that the systems needed for the facility which have not been previously found in Negeri Sembilan; that the main element fundamentals of the plan like the building blocks and explanation of material have to be found in the project and are yet to be dogged; and the organized method to ascertain and monitor observance have not been fully consider.

These circumstances could have the ability to settle throughout an adaptive administration solution to guideline, whereby free from the outcomes as well as the aims can be placed and administration solutions attuned over the time on the building blocks of practice. This technique needs a close operational connection between controller and advocate with the ability for the controller to arbitrate, quickly if essential, if the required outputs are not being attained. An adequate audit or guidance role is essential for thriving adaptive supervision.

Despite the actual fact that Negeri Sembilan condition and JMC are extremely self-confident that the projected service ought not unfavourably results on the atmosphere and an sufficient authoritarian system is in place throughout the needs of the International airports Work, still it is uncertain to the Office, besides that, guideline through rental program, would be adequately pro-active to point the potential failures to be achieve and desired goals. Furthermore, given the community worries about the recommendation, such dread is improbable to give ease to residents. However, the Department need to helps the recommendation by Negeri Sembilan talk about to cope with DoE to point out they require of authoritarian practice in dealing with the industrialized facilities such as assignments engaged. Nonetheless, such astringent would have to be included in a specific and officially workable device for DoE in order to take suited authoritarian success should it be necessary. The Section should think about that the recommendation should only keep on if numerals of reservations are verified to the contentment of the Malaysia Federal government;

i. A scrupulous authoritarian system is in position to certify that the recommendation meets the ideas lay out in the evaluation certification prepared by the supporter and that immediate and productive counteractive take action will be occupied should that set up never to be the key case;

ii. The promoter should reveal that it has to gain access to to materials, the chemical substance masterpiece of which will facilitate it to assemble the mandatory emission goal;

iii. The promoter should present practical particulars of how the projected scrubber method can attain the required emissions restrictions;

iv. The promoter should commence further analysis, including to acquire quality of air ambient data, to increase its emissions modelling effectively to suitably talk about concerns of quality of air; and

v. The promoter should start to draw out other conduct suggested by the Section like monitoring of its nutritional management place and research proceeding to any undergrowth authorization.

Steps in review the EIA of New Airport terminal in Sepang


Conrad Douglas and Associates: Natural Resources Conservation Specialist Rules for the Planning of the Environmental Impact Analysis - Draft, September 29, 1993.

Environmental Conservation Office, 2001: Handbook for Environmental Impact Evaluation (EIA) in Sabah. February 2001.

Goals and Principles of Environmental Impact Assessments [Adopted by decision 14/25, of the Regulating Council of UNEP, of 17 June, 1987] Chapter IV.

Haklay, M. , Feitelson, E. , and Doytsher, Y. , 1998: The Probable of a GIS-Based

Scoping System: an Israeli Proposal and RESEARCH STUDY, Environmental Impact Analysis Review, 18(5), 439-459 (http://www. casa. ucl. ac. uk/muki/eia. htm)

Municipal Engineers Connection of Ontario: Course Environmental Examination for Municipal Highway Projects, Section 5 - Open public Consultation June 1993. 5. Goals and Guidelines of Environmental Impact

Pastakia, C. M. R. , 1998: The Rapid Impact Examination Matrix (RIAM) - A New Tool for Environmental Impact Evaluation. In Kurt Jensen (ed. ), Environmental Impact Examination Using the Swift Impact Analysis Matrix (RIAM). Olsen & Olsen, 8-18.

Y. J. Ahmad and G. K. Sammy: Suggestions to Environmental Impact Assessment in Producing Countries UNEP Regional Seas Information and Studies No. 85, UNEP, 1987.

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