To identify the environmental problems in the superstructure development, we have to recognize the environmental aspect of this web site. So that recognizes the environmental impact or problems. According to the ISO 14001:2004 Environmental Management system, it lists out several environmental aspects a) emissions to air, b) produces to drinking water, c) produces to land, d) use of raw materials and natural resources, e) use of energy, f) energy emitted, e. g. high temperature, radiation, vibration, g) waste material and by-products, and h) physical attributes, e. g. size, condition, coloring, appearance.
Environmental aspect and impact
Emissions to air
During structure, all the materials e. g. ready combined concrete vehicle will deliver to the site by trucks or other vehicles, any vehicles method to this website will require fuel to perform. Thus they will release some pollutant to mid-air like CO, CO2, NO, NO2
Global warming will become more naturally. Although CO2 can maintain the temperature in the earth, high CO2 emission may cause green house impact. If the temp continuous rise, it will become a major disaster for example the mean sea level increase and the land will drown because of the glaciers in polar is melted.
On the other hands, a few of the pollutant will impact the fitness of individuals for example NO2 can irritate the lungs and lower resistance to respiratory infection such as influenza.
Releases to water
Due to the statutory necessity in Hong Kong, the leave of the website must use a wheel washing system to avoid any dirt or pollutants bring to outdoors environment by vehicles. This kind of system will take in so much normal water and this inflatable water will be dirt normal water. Any discharging of misuse water may cause pollution.
If the misuse water is immediately discharged to the garden soil without the treatment, the harmful chemical inside this will affect the prevailing plant life or tree. The earth will store the toxic contaminant even passing many years. Also, the throw away water will create a poor smell to environment. They might not exactly damage the individual health, but the bad smell will have an impact on the working condition for worker.
Releases to land
The site area will divide to several parts for storage area. However this type of materials may be highly corrosion to the prevailing land for example cement is acidic and the ground is alkali. When concrete is leakage to the dirt, the soil original property will change and harmful the prevailing tree and vegetation.
The soil contaminants will happen; the soil can be harmful to the prevailing tree and place. This effect won't disappear very quickly; this is a long term effect.
Use of raw materials and natural resources
Timber is one kind of natural resources. It made by tree e. g. hard wood, soft real wood. In building building, timber is participating in an essential role of building material. The mostly type is timber formwork. Before discharging the fresh cement, timber formwork will form the new cement to required form. Nevertheless the timber formwork cannot use often because the new concrete will corrode the timber formwork.
The tree must take very long time to expand, so timber will not provide without limit. Furthermore, there are many other products made by timber like furniture, newspaper In case the timber is over used and the timber becomes less creation, it'll very inconvenient for individual life. In addition the tree have a function to absorb the CO2, so when increasingly more tree disappear, the problem of global caution will get worse. Also the main of the tree can hold securely to the soil, when the tree is lower, more chance to occur landslide in sloping area.
Use of energy and f) energy emitted
All the instruments will demand electricity to use in the site for example some palm tools use by worker, lighting system, passenger hoist and material hoist. On the other hand the machine will consume petrol to operate during excavation or travelling.
During piling focus on the website, the piling process will create big sound and vibration to the environment. Nevertheless, other engineering process will also generate big impaction to environment.
Since the electricity is result from the fossil gas by generator, the fossil energy will create lot of containments like CO2 when burn off them. As the above talk about, CO2 will lead to green house effect and global warming can look.
Huge vibration will easily get settlement in adjacent properties. Also the noises will annoy people and become noise pollution.
Waste and by-products and h) physical features,
They are almost same as the above point out.
What is a basic safety plan? Protection plan is a report to guide the safety activity for a job. The main idea of the safety plan is to minimize the accident which in turn causes worker harm and any hazard of their health. It'll include the following things 1. Safety Coverage, 2. Safety Business, 3. Safety Training, 4. In-house Protection rules & legislation, 5. Safety Committee, 6. Programme for inspection of hazardous conditions, 7. Job threat analyze, 8. Person Cover Programme (PPP), 9. Accident/incident exploration, 10. Emergency preparedness, 11. Safety Advertising, 12. Health Assurance Program, 13. Evaluation selection and control of subcontractor, 14. Process control programme
We need to check out the statutory requirements
- Manufacturer & Industrial Undertakings Ordinance and Regulations
- Dangerous Goods Ordinance and Regulations
- Electricity Ordinance
- Flames Services Ordinance
- Builders' Lifts and Tower Working Systems (Protection) Ordinance
- Any related ordinances and regulations
- Monitoring the execution and conformity of the Site Safety Plan
- Set up for regular reporting and communication
- Planning of method declaration, hazard identification survey, risk evaluation and establishment of risk control system and monitoring its success and progress
- Training and promotion
- communicating with the enforcement organizations and outside the house advisory sources
- Reactive action to personnel suggestion
- First-aid official, competent people and examiners
3. Safeness Training
- Aerial Lift up Operator Training
- Crane Operator Training
- Defensive Drivers Training
- Driven Industrial Truck Operator Training
Before the work start, it should have a site orientation or induction of training. The orientations provide a forum for the owner/handling contractor to convey its commitment to provide a safe working environment for all those individuals face to face site. There is an possibility to remind everyone with their responsibility to provide due awareness to safe practices while planning and doing their work. This is the time to bolster their responsibility not to expose others face to face site to hazards or dangers.
4. In-house Safe practices rules & regulations
The entire employee in the site must wear the safety helmet so when the worker needs to wear the basic safety rope before they require working in elevation. The employee should wear the air-purifying respirators like mask to avoid any hazardous pollutants inhale to staff member body.
Before the worker begin to work, they need to have suitable certificate with the corresponded basic safety training course. So the worker can show they may have required capacity to work.
- Limited Space Certified Worker Protection Training Course
- Forklift Vehicle Operator License Exam Course
- Safety PROGRAM for Electric Arc Welding
- Manual Lifting and Handling Competent Person Security Training Course
- Electrician Permit A Trade Test Preparation Course
- Electrician Certificate B Trade Test Preparation Course
Establish regularly coordinating conference and site basic safety committee design.
Programme for inspection of hazardous conditions
Regular inspection on the webpage the time interval is based on days gone by performance and threat profile.
Establish the inspection profile like compliance and basic safety walk and accountable staff (including site mature management, safety officials and safeness supervisors)
Using the checklist to ensure they can be fulfilled the standard.
Job risk analyze
- Street to redemption from height
- Falling objects
- Stepping on or stunning against object
- Dangers associated with procedure of machinery, transportation and earth moving equipment such as concrete mixing plants, trucks, bulldozers, excavators etc.
- Dangers associated with lifting of materials, both mechanical and manual.
- Electric hazards
- Fire hazards
- Chemical hazards
- Collapse of earth - during excavation, slope cutting
After we identify the related the chance of the risk, we can set up the best solution to minimize the car accident.
Person Protection Program (PPP)
We must ensure that the use of personal protecting equipment (PPE) is the final resort after exhausting the hazard control.
The PPE includes Safe practices helmet, safety sneakers, UV safety (e. g. long sleeve tee shirts, extensive brim hats, 15+ sunscreen) and vision, hearing and respiratory protection
The selection and procurement must choose appropriate PPE with the certification.
We should provide appropriate training to the staff member to show how to use, storage area and maintenance of the PPE. For instance, we have to provide the safe practices helmet's cabinet to store them.
Establish a system of notification, saving and reporting. We ought to provide some organized arrangement for investigation and implementation of remedial procedures to curb further recurrence. Organised strategy for compiling and examining accident Statistics. Set up for studying the tendencies of accidents and formulate approaches for development of performance.
For small flames accident, it will provide the suitable fire-extinguisher e. g. water CO2, foam to stamp out the hearth. For large flame car accident, all the development work must stop and follow the disaster routes to escape. Also, security alarm should be provided to remind worker to escape.
For heavy typhoon like signal 8 and the red and dark transmission of the rainstorm, all the construction work must stop.
- A crisis plan
- Floor plans and layout displaying crisis exits, firefighting equipment
- Diagrams and design of dangerous goods stores
- Telephone numbers of key company workers, the police, etc.
- A set of outside bodies licensed to aid with special problem
We must have regularly meeting to the staff member on site to market the safety structure. Also we can establish the prize and charges system e. g. pay basic safety. If they can fulfill the safety need, they can get extra cash. Otherwise, it'll be reverse.
Using the posters, journals, newsletters, accident information displays training video to improve the safety awareness of the employee.
Health Guarantee Programme
We should provide some system such as pre-employment and medical evaluation programme for monitoring the visibility of labour.
Noise control and offer suitable ear canal protector to the employee if they need to work in high noise area.
Provide enough bathroom facilities, hand cleansing, drinking water, resting and eating place and facilities for safe-keeping of personal defensive equipment.
Evaluation selection and control of subcontractor
Means of communication and coordination with subcontractors and their workers and appropriate sub-contractor control. We must provide properly test system to check that tools, materials and chemicals employed by the subcontractors comply with statutory requirements. Establish some systems for critiquing subcontractors' performance. For example if the sub-contractor cannot match the standard, they will be exchanged.
Process control programme
Management of the Place of Work
- Fire Preparations including precautions and firefighting equipment
- Work in restricted spaces
- Working at height
- House keeping
- Coverage against slipping objects
Management of Responsibilities and Operations
- Lifting operations
- Mechanised materials handling
- Temporary works
Management of Equipment, Seed, Materials and Services
- Compressed air tools
- Electricity source system
- Electro-mechanical works
- Lightweight tools
Two main hurdles for the implementation of basic safety plan
I think the amount of money and labour safety consciousness are two main hurdles. Because the money is the primary domino of the complete project.
Provide the safeness training to the employee will spend extra time in the whole construction project. Some clients will dispute that we will spend the time to work to speed up the whole project. Also, we have to use some individuals reference to supervise the construction process. Since the key reason for the engineering company is making money. Even the project manager has learned that the bigger quality and standard of the non-public protective equipment could be more safety. However, it'll pay more income and raise the total construction cost. From the above reason, the task manager will do the minimize things of the statutory necessity; they will not do the best about the safeness, so that they can have maximum go back in the building project.
The other hurdle for the implementation of safety is the safe practices awareness of the employee. The labour will feel that the personal defensive equipment is very inconvenient for work. For example, they feel that wear safety rope work in height will disturb their working. For the reason that the basic safety rope will limit the working area. And if they only improve short while at height, they will not wear them anticipated to require extra work. Also, the employee cannot correctly use the PPE, so they cannot function properly.
http://www. ab. ust. hk/hseo/esst/Const-notes2001. PDF
http://www. polb. com/civica/filebank/blobdload. asp?BlobID=2527
http://www. safetypartnering. com/smd/pdf/pfss. pdf
http://www. qbuild. qld. gov. au/00_downloads/whs_construc-safe-plan_all. pdf
We need to establish different quality responsibility of different position of Exec Committee, Project Supervisor, Construction Quality Confidence Supervisor, Design Quality Guarantee Supervisor, Sampling and Testing Personnel, Personnel Inspectors, Testing Specialist, Geotechnical Engineer & Pile Driving a car Analyst, QA Surveyor and Development Manager. For example the responsibility of the Job Manager is responsible for group and maintenance of a record control system for any quality data, coordinate quality check point in quality control program reviews, and ensure reviews coordinated with outside entities.
Objective of the product quality plan
- Consistency meets the standard and dependence on the client
- To provide the project promptly with agree quality and prize
- To maintain and continually increase the quality of management systems
- To maintain and continually enhance the quality of entire project
Establish the product quality policy
- To attain the highest standard and quality of the job, it should be provided highly professional structure team.
- Establish the permanent relationship between distributor and sub-contractor
- Follow the standard of ISO9001_2008.
- The engineering work must under the guidance and inspection by authorize people.
- Provide training to the staff member who is the very first time come on the site.
- When any problems happen, the fixing method should not be downgraded the target quality.
- Connect the expectations of the Policy to all or any employees and stakeholders.
- Fulfill the client requirement
- Dealing with all our employees with respect, equality and fairness
For human reference, we have to provide training to teach them how to properly use the accessories. Also display the require standard for them to reach the require quality.
For material purchase and selection, we have to choose an adequately material with appropriate budget. Since the prize will straight affect the quality, therefore the budget arrangement is vital. Well-known and reputation distributor company should be selected to guarantee the materials quality.
Inspection screening and quality audit
We should establish the satisfactory standard to the worker like accepted degree of defection. After the standard is publicized, we need to provide suitable tests to ensure that they can reach the require standard. Then, it'll be documented for future improvement.
An inner quality audit system will add in this project and it'll be implemented during each period of the project.
Establish the saving system and process to control Project Documents at each Task Phase.
Ensure that the latest information is provided to the all staff and staff, so they shall use the revise information to process the development work.
Two main hurdles for the implementation of quality plan
http://www. wsdot. wa. gov/NR/rdonlyres/27A54B86-9825-4E81-9DEE-138823B4ED86/56842/QMPOutline050409. pdf
http://www. suzlon. com/pdf/SEA_Quality_Policy. pdf
http://www. visitask. com/project-quality. asp
https://stdmail. cityu. edu. hk/attach/BSI%20BS%20EN%20ISO9001_2008. pdf
Social commitments and professional obligations of legal and moral issues
According to the Hong Kong Institute of Structure Management,
in gratifying their professional responsibilities and the tasks which they carry out, have full regard to the public interest.
demonstrate a level of competence constant with their professional.
ensure, when undertaking any other engineering related activity, that such work is in accordance with good practice and current benchmarks and complies with all statutory and contractual requirements;
at virtually no time incorrectly offer or allow gifts or favors which would be affect the client to obtain preferential treatment;
keep them educated of current thinking and trends appropriate to the sort and degree of their responsibility. They must be in a position to provide evidence they have undertaken sufficient study and personal development to fulfill their professional obligations relative to the current guidelines
not offer or provide whether to a possible Client or a third party any gift or favor whether in money or elsewhere designed to secure instructions for work
not take on work that they knowingly shortage sufficient professional or technical competence, or the satisfactory resources to meet their obligation
Social commitments and professional tasks of consumer protection
not divulge to any person, company or company any information of any confidential nature relating to the business activities or techniques of their Company or Client acquired during their work;
not, with no permission with their Employer or Consumer, render any services, with or without remuneration, which issues with the hobbies of their Employer or Customer;
ensure, when providing an advisory service, that the advice given is reasonable and impartial;
if undertaking other structure related activity be required to maintain insurances and indemnify their Consumer against the dangers for which insurance is commonly effected arising out of the works according of workmen, third get-togethers and adjoining properties;
when acting for a customer or when in contemplation of operating for a possible Client whose interests discord or may discord with his own, or those of some of his associates to disclose the relevant facts forthwith to the Client or prospective Customer also to the affiliate and where such disclosure is oral to verify the same in writing at the earliest opportunity and inform your client that he shall be unable to act or continue to act unless the Client requests him to take action;
keep in one or more standard bank accounts separate from his own, his firm's or his company's bank account (as the case may be) any Clients' money performed by or entrusted to him, his firm or his company in virtually any capacity other than that of beneficial owner;
account at the due time for all moneys performed, paid or received on behalf of or from any person (whether a customer or not) eligible for such consideration and whether or not after the taking of such accounts any payment is because of such person.
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