Functional Requirements Of Cladding System Engineering Essay

Cladding can be defined as a protecting or insulating coating fixed to the outside of the building or any other composition. The goals of cladding system to be built are

To provide enclosure.

The cladding was made to provide enclosure to the building that may supply the necessary protection against the elements and exterior changes.

Speed of dry out construction.

The consumption of off-site prefabrication for the cladding can provide a drier and faster building.

It imposes minimal additional dead insert.

The cladding is usually made from a lightweight materials and thus the additional insert impose on the building is least.

It enhances architectural idea and impress the appearance of the building.

The cladding is made from a different type of materials. So, each of the material used may extrude the looks of the building according to the idea and function of the building that the architect desires to create.

It can control interior environment.

The cladding system can control the inner environment of the building such as managing light penetrating into the building, controlling rays and conduction of temperature from the sun, and many others.

To achieve the targets, the cladding system should follow some of the practical requirements. The primary functions of cladding system is to split up the indoors environment of your building from the outside in such a way that the outdoors environment will not impacting on the indoors and the in house environment can be retained at levels ideal for the expected use. The other functional requirements of the cladding system are as follows

The cladding system should have a good durability and stability.

The cladding system must have adequate strength to support its own weight between your things of support or fixings to the structural framework whereas the sufficient steadiness is needed to contrary to the lateral blowing wind pressure subjected to the building. Both of these features will be required in the cladding system to permit the differential movements between itself; in conditions of material extension and contraction, between the structural framework or the differential activity in other adjacent building component.

The cladding system should have exclusion of breeze and rainfall.

To fulfil these criteria, a practice is to create a solid cladding system with an external leaf as a rain screen and inner leaf as insulator. Thus, the materials used to seal joints are required to be resilient enough to support movement and withstand weather deterioration. To preserve the pressure and suctions by the breeze, the cladding must be adequately strong and stiff. The wind guidelines and velocities are better at the upper reaches of creating.

The cladding system must have durability and independence of maintenance.

The minimum occurrence and magnitude of work is essential to maintain the minimum practical requirements and appropriate appearance of the cladding. As an instance, the a glass cladding requires repeated cleaning and renewal of seal to keep its performance whereas the sheet steel cladding need to be discovered and carefully care for it as it is easily experience oxidation process and faded.

The cladding system gets the control of internal temperatures.

This is because of the solar gain through the cup panels. The internal heat can be handled by 3 ways. First is by by using a deep recessed home window in conjunction with exterior vertical fins. Secondly, by using non-transparent external louvers and finally is by by using a special solar control a glass.

The cladding system has a great resistance towards fire.

The system must fulfil the building rules by the neighborhood specialist. The materials used as a coating for insulation must be produced from a non-combustible material.

The cladding system will include thermal properties by managing rays and conduction of heating.

The lining of the cladding material need to provide additional insulation to regulate heat. To radiate the flow of high temperature from sunlight, the interior surfaces of the cladding need to be at the temperatures that won't cause radiant discomfort which is neither too hot nor too wintry. To regulate the conduction of temperature, the cladding must be made from a minimal conductivity of heat materials to avoid localised condensation on interior floors, thermal bridges and stabilised the required amount of the conduction of temperature into and from the building.

The cladding system should be prepared with sound insulation.

The cladding system should isolate the noises outside the building from the inside of the building or the interior of the building from the exterior sound. The isolation of noises is best attained by surfaces that posses the features of airtight, large and resilient. The used of resilient pad to prevent sensible originating within the composition to be moved vertically through the cladding customers. The airborne audio can be avoided by utilising double glazing panel to windows area.

The cladding systems must provide sufficient opportunities for the admittance of natural daylight and ventilation.

The admittance of the sun rays in to the building must be handled as the sunshine has ultraviolet ray which is harmful towards human epidermis and must be maintained off from inferior material that easily disintegrate or diminish. The noticeable light of sunlight pays to for lighting but it can also be bothersome since it causes glare.

Question 2 (b)

A client requires a road that requires little maintenance with realistic non-skid properties. With the aid of diagram, suggest a kind of road and the engineering technique for the proposed highway.

The type of road that requires little maintenance and affordable non-skid properties is a rigid pavement or also called concrete road. A rigid pavement includes a concrete slab relaxing on a skinny granular bottom part. The pavement may be Unreinforced Cement (URC), Jointed Reinforced Concrete (JRC) or Continuously Reinforced Cement (CRCP). The concrete slab should be Pavement Quality Concrete (PQC), manufactured, laid and treated based on the specification required.

Figure 1: Cross-section of Pavement Structure

The basic rigid pavement structure contains subgrade (existing earth), sub-base course, platform course and surface course (concrete). The sub-base course and bottom part course are optional depending on location of the road to be produced. Sub-base layer includes a trim concrete base and a level of cement-bound granular foundation or soil concrete base. The total thickness of sub-base and concrete slab should be considered a minimum of 450mm. The function of sub-base is supporting the drainage, guarding the subgrade against frost, and, in the case of fine-grained soils is to prevent pumping where the ejection of water and silt through joint parts or breaks occurs because of the downwards motion of the slab triggered by heavy steering wheel loads.

The materials used as a granular sub-base are smashed rock, crushed slag, crushed concrete, natural fine sand, gravels or well-burnt non-plastic shale.

After the placement of sub-base covering, an anti-friction membrane is placed over and normally polythene sheeting that performs extra function of avoiding grout reduction from freshly laid concrete.

The concrete slab is normally placed by way of a concreting coach that works on a heavy duty street form to prevent deflection and it is bedded in position at least 24 hours before concreting tthe slab. A hopper unit is usually contained in the concrete train to give food to the cement on the base by way of a conveyor belt. This operation may be carry out alternatively by using a screw-type spreader. Then, the concrete is laid onto the cloth reinforcement, accompanied by the putting of the cloth, another spreader and compactor device to complete the slab. Next, a surcharge is located on the top coating of concrete to get maximum compaction.

An alternative method to lay down the slab is by by using a slip-form paver. This herb requires no side forms and installed on crawler tracks. It is capable of laving pavement at 2m each and every minute.

The general method of rigid pavement costruction contains placement, consolidation, finishing, curing and jointing.


This process will involve equipments and techniques use to put the pre-cast cement on the desired width of surface. The cement can be pour and propagate by using pick up truck or truck accessories. For a more exact and even placement, a placementmachine can be use instead. The cement will become less homogenous or have a tendency to segregate after it has been unloaded from the pickup truck. Thus, the screeding process is completed soon after the concrete location. The excess part of roughly pre-cast concrete are cut off to the required degree of slab elevation. This is done by dragging a straightedge at the mandatory elevation across the slab.

Figure 2: Positioning Over Dowel Pubs in an Intersection

Figure 3: Positioning in Front of a

Rolling Screed


This process is use to get rid of undesirable voids in any ways possible. This technique removes undesirable air voids and leading to it to go around reinforcing steel or other potential obstruction and thus, makes the freshly placed pre-cast cement more even and small mass. The process of consolidation is completed by utilizing a vibrator that may be characterised as a long and slim vibration rods. The vibrator functions by moving backwards and forwards to turn an eccentric weight which causes the allergens in the pre-cast concrete mass to excite to move close together for a much better flow around blockage. However, the vibrator need to be controlled carefully as the exccess or too little vibration can cause the coarse aggregate allergens to be non-uniformly allocated.


Finishing process entails all the steps and equipment used to make the ultimate surface carry out and feel of fresh pre-cast concrete. This technique can be split into two parts; floating and texturing.

Floating. This technique includes different tools and may use multiple moves above the same surface. That is done by owning a flat surface over the concrete to remove high and low areas, eliminate the defects, and streamlined the mortar at the top for texturing.

Texturing. The cement is quite soft following the floating. So, texturing process is carried out to create a slide amount of resistance surface for traffic. The pattern is performed by dragging a rough-texture item over the surface. There are two types of texturing; microtexture and macrotexture.

Microtexture. The texturing is done by dragging a section of unnatural turf or burlap behind the paver. This may enhances frictional power between the auto tires of vehicles and the top of pavement and therefore increases safeness at lower rates of speed.

Macrotexture. The texturing is done by tining the pavement surface. This sort of texturing allows water to flee from between the tyres of vehicles and the pavement and thus increases the protection at high rates of speed.

Figure 4: Microtexture Figure 5: Macrotexture


The curing process is the maintenance of required temperature and satisfactory moisture content in pre-cast cement as it hardens to build up desired properties such as durability, durability and thickness. These properties related to the amount of hydration of cement which rely upon the moisture and temperatures of the site. The efficiency of the hydration can results the better concrete's properties.


This process requires the actions to place purposeful discontinuities in the pavement and seal them appropriately. Joints are shaped in slab for allowing and controlling the actions such as expansion, contraction and warping. You will find two types of materials found in joint parts, a sealer that separates the slab and a sealing ingredient that fills the top of joint. The material used as a joint fillings are cork, rubber or sheet bitumen.

On completion, the top of slab may be textured by brushing with a line broom at right perspectives to the centre type of the carriageway to provides a much better skidding level of resistance and even appearance. The slab should be cured immediately after brush treatment by spraying with a treating compound.

Question 2 (c):

Describe the performance and designate the material that can be used to complete the void of disused buildings, e. g. - culverts, redundant sewers, cellars, and basements and also for earth structural stabilisation, e. g. - bridge abutments, tunnel stabilisation, and embankments.

The material you can use to complete the voids of disused structure is foamed cement. Specifically, it is called Highly Air-entrained Mortar (HAM) or also called aerated concrete. Ready-mix foam concrete is highly workable and contain up to 50 percent air-entrained which lead to a minimal density material. This sort of concrete can self-levelling, self-compacting and can be pumped with the risk of settlement cracking and clear plastic shrinkage is lower when compared to a normal cement.

The performances of the foamed concrete can be divided into three categories that happen to be plastic state advantages, working improvements and final concrete performance.

At plastic stage advantages, the foam cement can be executed to an assortment project needs and operational conditions as it is more sensible than some other materials. The top features of concrete that gratify at this stage are as follows

The concrete can be produced on site or off site. This feature allows an instantaneous positioning on delivery and therefore, no space is needed for storage. This can also lead to nice workability retention.

The cement has wide range of possible mixes of materials matching to its usage. The proportion of concoction is adaptable to fulfil required performance. This might results in handled density and durability of the concrete.

The cement has a stable chemical framework. So, no earth research and moisture inspections between layers are required. This is due to its compatibility with almost all building products and materials.

The cement has a cellular fill. This might cause the exterior contamination face issues to penetrate in to the concrete.

At the working advancements category, the free-flowing properties of these concrete donate to the next features and benefits

The concrete is easy to place and surface finish. It uses only an individual process of assembly where the cement is pour and then levelled. This lead to a reduction in cost for labour and guidance. Besides, the specialist machinery such as compactors or vibrators isn't needed.

The foam concrete is pumpable. They could be pumped at a substantial distance by using a simple standard concrete pump.

The cement is self-compacting and self-levelling. This feature helps it be well suited for an inaccessible trench where the compaction is difficult to handle. It allows the concrete to discharge into thin space and totally fills the void.

At last concrete performance category, the clear plastic state characteristics have finally translated into significant last performances. The shows are as follows

The concrete has high entrained air content. This feature makes the cement becomes more resistance towards freezing or thaw harm. The entrained air content also acts as a good thermal and acoustic insulation.

The foam cement has a good cohesion. The cohesion makes the cement as a well balanced foam composition that reduces settlements. The cohesion also helps in the reduced amount of bleeding and segregation of concrete

The denseness and strength of the foam concrete can be manipulated. The number of densities and talents is available for each type of foam concrete. The lower strength concrete allows removal of succeeding usage of services

The foam cement has a well balanced structure rendering it can be surfaced after twenty-four hours.

Question 2 (d):

Briefly describe the actions involved in exterior works in the beginning of the contract.

External works can be generally defined as the engineering works done externally from the key building. The exterior works can be split into two; at contract commencement and at the end of contract. The activities involved in external works in the very beginning of the contract are drainage, temporary access and complexes, and public resources whereas the actions involved at the end of contract includes road and pavement, fencing, landscaping design and minor external works.

Drainage can be divided into two types; underground/subsurface drainage and surface drainage.

Subsurface drainage was made to collect the water from where it is not wanted to various other place such as removing and disposing of surplus groundwater from backyards and other plots of open land. The machine usually handles foul normal water from kitchen, toilets and any industrial process or incorporating foul normal water with surface drinking water. The subsurface drainage system involves underground pipe line, manhole/inspection chamber and culvert.

The underground tube lines pipes and sewer pipes can be made of vitrified clay, uPVC, concrete, high thickness polyethylene (HDPE) and many others. The jointing of plain ended pipes is manufactured through a coupling where in fact the socketed tube that has distinguishable 'male' and 'female' ends must be laid with 'feminine' end directing upstream.

To construct underground pipe line, the pipes should be laid in right line from indicate point with a fall season to a steady gradient. The type of bedding is with regards to the pipes material to safeguard the pipes from ruptures or breakage. The accessories and access factors must be installed at head of run, bend or change of direction, change in pipe diameter with junction, unless all goes connected to junction can be rodded from another access point.

The second part of subsurface drainage system is manhole, access point and inspection chamber. The access chambers are designed to provide simple gain access to for cursory inspection and access for drain rods or other maintenance equipment. The inspection chambers (IC) are bigger than access chambers. It provides access for maintenance equipment, but tends to have significantly more branches feeding into them. The manholes (MH) will be the major chambers providing access to sewer or drain for maintenance equipment. The manholes can be made from brick (brick manhole) or pre-cast concrete manhole. The brick manhole routinely have 215mm dense brickwork with a mass concrete as benching whereas the pre-cast concrete manhole only 50-60mm heavy, although those built beneath vehicular trafficked areas must have been haunches with mass cement at least 150mm solid.

Figure 6: The Cross-section of Pre-cast Cement Manhole

The third part of subsurface drainage system is culvert. Culvert is a composition which provides a waterway or other beginning under a highway. The type of tube culvert should be class Z spun reinforced concrete with spun concrete collars or spigot and socket type.

Figure 7: The Culvert

The second type of drainage is surface drainage system. The system collects water from the roof and the paving, often discharging this relatively clean water into a local watercourse to lessen demand on the effluent treatment herb. The surface water systems are gulley and access point, continuous grating over pre-cast concrete programs and merged kerb and drainage systems.

The gulley and access point can be classed into specific trapped gulley and highway gullies. The individual stuck gully commonly used in combination with rainwater downspouts for draining large region of paving. The street gullies are fundamentally much bigger and used within carriageways.

The constant grating over pre-cast programs can be made from extensive range materials such as HDPE, polymer concrete and stainless.

The blended kerb and drainage systems act as street isolator and discharge point of collected surface water.

Figure 8: The Kerb

Second external works done at start of agreement is the building of temporary gain access to, storage area, car parking and site facilities. They are the major components to be built before any engineering of building may take places in provision of difficult access to all elements of the site, troubles in storage area of materials and for the website facilities and car parking.

For the development of temporary gain access to, the company will lay the base course of long lasting highway to minimise the cost. The site momentary street can be held dry out by laying the drainage system at the earliest opportunity.

The third exterior works at the commencement of agreement is the general public utilities services. The assistance which involves are water system, electricity and cabling for phone. The public resources have to be planned ahead before any major structures are designed. Any constructions of service mains and ducts should start concurrently with foundation construction stage such that it will not impede the development activities.

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