Fundamental Strategies Towards Sustainable Development Construction Essay

Abstract- Since the development industry has great effect on the surroundings, the factor of ecological development through sustainable construction is necessary. Sustainable construction is a way for the building industry to go towards achieving lasting development, taking into account environmentally friendly, socio-economic and social issues. Specifically, it requires issues such as design and management of properties, materials and building performance, energy and resource consumption. Therefore, lasting construction provides solutions that require marketing all type of environmental influences since global warming is no longer a remote notion but a genuine threat to the continuing future of mankind. This newspaper is overview of lasting practice in structure industry. Mixed methods of quantitative research through questionnaire survey and qualitative research using semi organized interview will be applied. For the first stage of data collection, the quantitative method will be applied to recognize the obstacles in employing the sustainable construction. Alternatively, qualitative method will be used to produce strategies for the Malaysian development participants to execute the sustainable construction. Interview program will be conducted among experienced professionals in construction industry to be able to generate their opinion for the implementation of ecological engineering in Malaysian construction industry. By the end of the research, discussion and advice will be protected, summarising the study content. This research is attemptedto develop a platform policy of ecological engineering in Malaysia. A new strategies and guidelines seem to be part of the platform design. The platform produced from this research will be used as the standards to benchmark the gaps in process and technique for sustainable building industry to be able to fully capture good techniques in terms of minimising environmental effects and improve Malaysian readiness into the lasting issues.

Keywords- Global warming, sustainable development, sustainable engineering, environmental impact, policies

Introduction

The recently launched National Green Technology Insurance plan in 2009 2009 reflects Malaysian Government's seriousness in travelling the subject matter that 'clean and green' is just how forward towards sustainable construction that will profit current and future issues related to financial, social and environment and also quality of life. Such policy showed that federal government were seriously motivated the attempts in tackling all related green issues in the united states that match the global vision on ecological development.

This research will be looking into the sustainable techniques in Malaysian construction industry and will be focusing on the sustainable plan in other Asian countries such as Singapore, Thailand, Indonesia and Japan which quite definitely dynamic in Green Technology and sustainable projects. The reason for this is to show the 'gaps' that needs to be filled in by the coverage makers to be able to catch up with the current advancements which have been happening in other countries.

The reason for this paper is to disclose the overall framework of the study that is currently being commencing by the researcher. Therefore, it is beyond the opportunity of this paper to go over any studies from any of the research methodology adapted currently.

PROBLEM STATEMENT

Nowadays, one of the most pressing concerns for this industry is global warming which can be an increase in the common temperature of the Earth's atmosphere and oceans consequently of the accumulation of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere [1]. Global warming, sometimes called weather change, is causing an increase in the earth's near-surface temp due to changes in the atmospheric composition. Many scientists believe that recently observed global warming is partly induced by greenhouse gas emissions from energy production, vehicles, industry and agriculture [2] (Oh and Chua, 2010; Radhi, 2009). In Malaysia, the major contributor of the greenhouse gas is carbon dioxide emissions and the tendency has been increasing every year since 1982. The global carbon dioxide emission has increased significantly from 19, 380 million lots in 1980 to 31, 577 million lots in 2008. It really is predicted that skin tightening and emission increase to 40 billion tons in 12 months 2030 if no remarkable effort are thrown in to mitigate it [3-4]. Furthermore, relating to Dato' Sri Peter Chin Fah Kui Minister Of Energy, Green Technology And Water in his speech in the ASEAN Affairs and the Malaysia-Europe Message board, greenhouse gas emissions in Malaysia has increased substantially by 13% and 32% per GDP and per capita respectively between 1994 and 2000. Malaysian total greenhouse gas emissions increased by 55% in 2000 in comparison to the 1994 levels. Furthermore, he stated that Malaysia's emission of CO2 per capita which is approximately 7. 1 tonne per capita was greater than the average for Asia Pacific of 2. 6 tonne per capita predicated on the National Communications Article. Since global warming has emerged as the most serious environmental issues in our time and since sustainability becoming an important issue of economics and political debates worldwide therefore, it is essential very important to Malaysian building industry to help expand implement the lasting construction which gets rid of the negative effect on the structure industry.

At present, Malaysia is a society with about 27. 73 million covering part of 329, 750 kilometres2 based on the latest census in 2008 and the GDP grew at the average rate over 5. 7% over the last 6 years [5]. As a result, being a fast industrializing country, it is expected an increased need for more houses, complexes and open public infrastructure. Due to that matter, the government introduces the "Ecological Concept" that may be put on the development industry to keep the ecosystem and built environment as well. While standard building tactics are guided by short-term economic considerations, sustainable construction is dependant on best practices which emphasize permanent affordability, quality and efficiency (Isover, 2009). Lasting construction, which has undoubtedly been dubbed 'green construction', describes the duty of the construction industry in attaining sustainability (Nazirah, 2009). Besides that, ecological construction is aimed at reducing the environmental impact of your building over its entire life span, while optimizing its economic viability and the comfort and safeness of its occupants (Aguilar, 2008; Isover, 2009; PediaPress, 2009). Furthermore, sustainable construction is all about maintaining a balance between the human being need for complexes for shelter and business businesses and infrastructure for top quality of well-being at one hands, and conserving natural resources and ecosystems, on which we and future technology rely at the other hands (Singh, 2007; Nazirah and Aini, 2010). As stated previously, sustainable structure is seen as a way for the building industry to contribute to the effort to achieve sustainable development. However, in Malaysia, the inexperienced movement continues to be at low level where sustainable jobs in Malaysia are mostly at the pioneer stage [6]. She pointed out that the modest volume of sustainable jobs being built-in Malaysia is a sign of the sluggish consumption of the sustainability theory among construction practitioner. Thus, this means that that the concerted work by the government, non-governmental and education corporations have not completely penetrated into development activities. Looking the aforementioned statement, it could be conclude that there surely is still lack of effort in the application of the sustainable theory among construction specialist and this circumstance shown that it appears problematic for the Malaysian engineering industry to further implement the sustainable structure. Thus, more work are needed and should be aimed towards realising the renewable agenda of the industry to improve the level of environmental awareness and civic awareness among the visitors to build sustainably in the future. Therefore, this research will identify the obstacles in implementing the sustainable construction in Malaysian Development Industry.

Government policies have been recognised as important instruments in driving the marketplace for sustainable structures [7]. At recent, the green technology advertising was further emphasized in the 9th Malaysia Plan (2006-2010). This indicate that government were seriously inspired the efforts in tackling all related renewable issues in the country that supplement the global vision on ecological development. The establishment of the Ministry of Energy, Green Technology and Water to replace the Ministry of Energy, Marketing communications and Multimedia in early 2009 demonstrates Malaysia's seriousness in generating the subject matter that 'clean and renewable' is just how forward towards creating an market that is based on sustainable solutions. The introduction of the new Country wide Green Technology Coverage in Apr 2009 by the current Best Minister, Datuk Seri Najib Tun Razak, shall provide guidance and create new opportunities for businesses and companies to impact on the economic progress positively. The National Green Technology Insurance plan is built on four pillars that are seek to attain energy independence and promote productive utilization, save and lessen the impact on the environment, enhance the national monetary development by using technology and improve the quality of life for everyone [8]. The National Insurance plan on Environment looks for to assimilate environment concerns into development activities to foster long-term financial growth and individuals development also to protect as well as enhancing the grade of environment. Thus, the National policy is seen as a major catalyst of the government's strategies in order to promote ecological construction since lasting construction is a means for the building industry to go towards achieving ecological development. More strategies and actions should be pursued actively to increase the process in creating sustainable oriented development industry which is paramount towards creating a lasting future. Therefore, this research is an attempt to treat the issues of sustainable development and what approaches needs to be carried out for sustainable construction in Malaysia.

THE EMERGENCE OF SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT

Sustainability has become an important concern worldwide. There's a growing matter for sustainability due to severe negative influences of human being development activities in the planet earth. The word "sustainable development" is actually emerged through the World Payment on Environment and Development established by the United Nations in 1983 and today known as the Brundtland Fee. The survey, Our Common Future in the publication of "Brundland Report" provided the easiest and widely used definition for sustainable development as development to ensure which it meets the needs of the present without compromising the ability of future years to meet their own needs [9]. The idea was given currency at the United Nations Seminar on Environment and Development (UNCED) in 1992, and strengthened at the entire world Summit on Sustainable Development (WSSD) in 2002. UNCED found the first global contract on programmes to use it in every areas associated with sustainable development, as documented in Plan 21 [10]. Through the United Nations Earth Summit held by the United Nations Environment Program (UNEP) in Rio de Janeiro (1992), a lasting development was thought as improving the quality of individual life while living within the hauling capacity of helping eco systems. This classification has an effect on the economic, public and environmental development and was later formally followed worldwide [11]. This has lead to an evergrowing concern throughout the world to improve the way of our own development into a more dependable way without destroying the world we resided in.

SUSTAINABILITY IN CONSTRUCTION

Buildings, infrastructure and the surroundings are part of our own living environment thus influencing our living conditions, public well-being and health. Hence, it is important to explore environmentally and economically sound design and development approaches for complexes and infrastructure to allow them to be lasting, healthy and affordable, and also which encourage creativity in engineering [11]. Recently, the concern on environment is relatively a little part of almost all of building development. However, with the growing understanding on environmental cover due to the depletion of non-renewable resources, global warming and extremity of devastation to ecology and biodiversity impact, this problem have gain wider attention by the engineering practitioners worldwide. Many attempts are being aimed to build ecological in construction world. The route of the industry is now shifting from expanding with environmental concern as a little part of the process into having the development process being integrated within the wider context of environmental plan [12]. While using implementation of ecological construction, the construction industry will produce positive and proactive changes such as less pollution, waste products and even constitutes to the health of future decades. Therefore, the building activities must work and comply with the necessity to protect and preserve the environment. As a consequence, achieving sustainability means obtaining standard of living.

Existing research implies that construction activities are a major contributor to environmental pollution [13]. Hence, sustainable development is an answer to reduce the major effect on the environment. Ecological development requires the building industry itself to be lasting first. A couple of three elements that are related to ecological development, which are economic, communal and environment aspect [14]. Lasting in economical includes increase profitability and competitiveness. Sustainable in public elements covers areas of the delivery of buildings and infrastructures that satisfies the satisfactorily fits the necessity of the users and stakeholders. While lasting in environment would consider the concerns on the conservation of natural ecosystems and minimization of environmental impacts and the consumption of energy and natural resources [10, 14]. After that, sustainable construction is seems as a way for the construction industry to donate to the effort to achieve sustainable development [6]. In brief, sustainable engineering is the construction that plays a part in the sustainable development. Abidin [15] advised that the way of sustainable structure will permit the construction professionals to be more responsible to environmentally friendly safeguard needs without neglecting the sociable and financial needs in striving for better living. Therefore, the challenge of the engineering industry is to get the balance between three main pillars; environmental, financial and social for the building industry to go towards sustainability.

Since the structure industry has a great significant effect on the environment, the implementation of sustainable engineering is crucial. Corresponding to Tan, Shen and Yao [13] ecological construction identifies the integration of environmental, interpersonal and economic concerns into construction business strategies and methods. It is the application of the concepts of ecological development to the thorough construction routine from the extraction of raw materials, through the planning, design and construction of complexes and infrastructure, until their last deconstruction and management of the resultant waste products. However Hamid, Noor, Kamar, Ghani, Zain, and Rahim [16] further explained that sustainable development is the creation and responsible maintenance of a health built environment, based on ecological rules and by means of an efficient use of resources. Furthermore, sustainable building is a means for the building industry to go towards achieving lasting development, considering environmentally friendly, socio-economic and cultural issues [11, 17]. Aguilar [18] pointed out that the adoption of ecological construction practices offers environmental protections as well economical advantages of consumers and areas offering substantial cost savings in the structures life-cycle functioning costs. Singh [19] further added that sustainability in engineering is focused on following suitable tactics in terms of preference of materials, their options, structure methodologies as well as design viewpoint to be able to have the ability to improve performance, decrease the environmental burden of the task, minimize waste and be ecologically friendlier. Subsequently, sustainable construction handles limited resources especially energy and how to reduce the effects on the natural environment.

Previous studies related to the research

There were various research has been conducted in the region of sustainable building and the number seems to increase over time since environmental issues are more concerning worldwide. The study that has been done in the area of sustainable engineering can be grouped into four which are research on sustainable tactics, research on opportunities and awareness, research on materials and research on insurance plan. The research that is done in sustainable practices for instance is by Tan, Shen and Yao [13] which conducted a research on sustainable development practice and companies' competitiveness which focuses on the partnership between sustainability performance and business competitiveness. The results showed that there surely is no unique romance between your two parameters. But by using a long-term view, sustainability performance will have better contribution to business competitiveness in the foreseeable future. Whereas Chen, Okudan, and Riley [20] conducted a study on lasting performance conditions for construction method selection in concrete properties. The study was based on a qualitative research way. In her study, she has recognized a list of possible opportunities and proper directions for authorities and industry stakeholders' account in view into the future development. While Shen, Tam, Leona and Ji [21] reviewed major problems of conducting task feasibility research to the ecological construction practices with regards to Mainland China building industry. The study demonstrated that there is a need for shifting the traditional approach of job feasibility review to a fresh way for embracing the rules of ecological development. Besides, Shafii [11] did a research on sustainable Structure in the developing countries of Southeast Asia and discovered that the status of sustainable structure in Southeast Asia continues to be in its infancy. Reffat [22] in his research dealt with the essential requirements for expanding sustainable development in developing countries including considering sustainability as a necessity, effective management of resources, distributed responsibility, quality improvement of development techniques and products, improving the capacity of construction sector, and the necessity for designed research. The invention of building materials and solutions as an opportunity of sustainable construction in developing countries is released. An instrument for ecological building is also offered. Mohamad [23] conducted a study on Ideas of Sustainable Development in Ibn Khaldun's Economic Thought which focused on the nature of pursuable development in the monetary style of Ibn Khaldun. The researcher cursorily examines Ibn Khaldun famous work al-Muqadimmah, as well as the interpretations of his work offered by modern-day scholars. This research reinterprets those views and concludes that the economical growth theory of Ibn Khaldun implies lasting development if one opts for a moderate rate of involved development. Ibn Khalduns theory of development goes towards the same path as that of Basic Needs, Dematerialisation, and de-growth in our time. Overconsumption, corruption of morality, and the greed for luxury are accepted the signals of street to redemption of civilisations which are taken here to be the indicators of unsustainable development. His views can guide Muslim countries in drafting development plan and can also be employed by educators for promoting lasting development in Muslim Countries. A study done by Destatte [24] discussed that foresight could be a major tool in tackling sustainability as well as among the finest methods of organizing lasting strategies and policies since the efforts made to develop specific methods focused on building lasting strategies seem rather poor. Futurists themselves underestimate the relationship between lasting development and foresight, even if they are talking about sustainable planning.

Research on opportunities and consciousness for case has been done by [6, 15] on awareness and application of sustainable construction strategy by Malaysian creators. This review has been conducted to investigate the amount of awareness, knowledge and execution of sustainable techniques predicated on the perceptions of the task designers in Malaysia. The findings was only large designers are beginning to take heed towards ecological implementation in their jobs. Because of limited understanding and the matter about cost, many developers are still hesitant and uncertain pertaining to quest for sustainability in their assignments. Whereas in the research, The Way In advance of Sustainable Development and Green Technology In Malaysia conducted by Hamid, Noor, Kamar, Ghani, Zain, and Rahim [10] looked into the challenges facing by the industry in growing sustainable agenda and discusses Building Industry Development Board (CIDB)'s initiatives in putting into action sustainable agenda. Furthermore, he highlighted current research on sustainable construction and renewable technology and strategic advice as just how forward. While Shafii, Ali, and Othman [11] in their research focused on the public & private initiatives, partnerships and international co-operations to support lasting building development in Malaysia. The finding was there may be increasing public consciousness and curiosity about how buildings affect the environment, employee productivity and public health. As a result, both the open public and private sector are beginning to demand properties that maximize energy use; promote tool efficiency; and improve indoors environmental quality. Builders, owners, operators, insurance providers, and the public most importantly are beginning to value and market the benefits associated with ecological building. Despite these replies and demand, the development in lasting building is relatively sluggish; this partly, might be because of the lack of bonuses and regulatory techniques to guide sustainable building development. The Green Building Objective launched recently by the Malaysian Authorities is an sign of a encouraging effort to ensure ecological development and delivery of the structure industry products to satisfy these needs. The newspaper also discussed on the movements, challenges and barriers for implementations of ecological building with advice for creating clear policy goals.

Research that is conducted on materials in essence focused on the sustainable material in engineering industry and based on laboratory oriented. For instance research conducted by Voo [25] reveals an overview of the material characteristics of an Malaysia blend of ultra-high performance 'ductile' concrete (UHPdC) know as DURA. The assessment studies show that many structures constructed from UHPdC are usually more environmentally lasting than built of the traditional reinforced concrete with respect to the reduced amount of CO2 emissions and embodied energy.

However, in this newspaper, the researcher intends to give attention to sustainable insurance policy. Generally, there is absolutely no similar comprehensive research which includes been done by any researcher in the Malaysian development industry regarding on coverage since Malaysia still don't have coverage on the sustainable construction predicated on the initial interview that has been finished with Encik Ishamuddin bin Mazlan from the Ministry of Energy, Green Technology and Normal water (KeTTHA). If any, it just focuses on the Environmental policy say for example a research conducted by Ambali [26] on Malaysian Experience in Coverage of Sustainable Environment. The findings of the newspaper have shown an empirical marriage between environmental degradations and indicators of human development activities in Malaysia and in other places on earth. However, the paper reflects some important issues that need to be addressed by the government for future path of its plan efforts towards safety of natural resources and the surroundings most importantly. Whereas Zhang and Wen [27] in her research, review and troubles of plans of environmental safeguard and sustainable development in China regulate how best to coordinate the relationship between the environment and the market by taking a glance at the introduction of Chinese environmental coverage in order to further improve standard of living and the sustainability of China's resources and environment. Types of important measures include the adjustment of economic framework, reform of energy insurance plan, development of environmental industry, pollution elimination and ecological conservation, capacity building, and international co-operation and public contribution. While a study conducted by Hezri and Hasan [28] views the recent history of Malaysia's evolving insurance policy response to development needs and environmental change as consisting of four distinct stages. Despite an impressive array of coverage statements and strategies to implement lasting development, many problems remain today. A definite articulation of normative concepts of ecological development is of paramount importance, as is the monumental job of policy execution. This article argues that the trajectory of Malaysia's coverage on natural resources and environmental issues bears the characteristics of course dependent advancement. At PhD level, Kumorotomo [29] mentioned the process of decision-making on Indonesian fiscal decentralisation coverage in order to explain policy changes and continuities. It focuses on innovations from 1974 to 2004. Based on the review of the prior studies related to the study which may have been mentioned above there seems no analysis that is done (yet) in the region of sustainable structure policy which will be reviewed by the researcher in this Expert research. Therefore, the difference has been identified and in order to contribute to the existing body of knowledge.

RESEARCH AIM AND OBJECTIVES

The goal of this research is to build up framework insurance plan for the Malaysian Development participants to move towards sustainable building. To be able to achieve this goal the following goals were determined:

Objective 1: To decided the importance of putting into action the sustainable building in Malaysian Structure Industry.

Objective 2: To discovered the barriers to be able to implement sustainable structure in Malaysian Structure Industry.

Objective 3: To develop fundamental strategies in promoting the sustainable development in Malaysian building industry.

RESEARCH QUESTIONS

Research questions functions as helpful information in match the aim and objectives of the study. To be able to resolve the study problem, the following research questions were applied:

Research question for goal 1

What and just why sustainable development is important in the Malaysian structure industry?

How important of execution of sustainable construction in Malaysian?

How sustainable development can decrease the global warming or climate change in Malaysia?

Research question for aim 2

What will be the barriers in putting into action the sustainable structure in Malaysian Development Industry?

How to minimise the obstacles?

Research question for goal 3

What will be the strategies to advertise the sustainable building in Malaysian structure industry?

What will be the roles of various sectors to advertise the sustainable construction in Malaysian Development Industry?

2. 1 What will be the roles of the federal government agencies?

2. 2 Private sector? Developers? Contractors?

RESEARCH METHODOLOGY

The research methodology serves as a guide in achieving desire to and goals of the study. This section would focus on the method of study to be carried out in order to achieve the objective of this research. In such a research, mix method of questionnaire survey and case study will be employed.

Quantitative Approach

For the first stage of data collection, the quantitative method will be applied in order to recognize the obstacles in implementing lasting engineering in Malaysian structure industry.

Qualitative Approach

On the other side, qualitative method will be used in order to create strategies to further execute the sustainable construction. Interview program will be conducted among experienced specialists who involved directly in structure industry. The goal is to generate their judgment towards the execution of sustainable engineering in Malaysian engineering industry.

SIGNIFICANT WITH THE RESEARCH

This research will add to the body of knowledge that with the implementation of sustainable engineering the building industry will result in positive changes for instance less pollution, throw away and even constitutes of health future decades. This research is expected to develop a construction policy of ecological engineering in Malaysia. A new strategies and recommendations seem to be part of the construction design. This research will highlight the importance of execution of sustainable building in Malaysian development industry to be able to preserve ecological system and improve the social wellness of most Malaysian people. Besides that, this research will identify the obstacles in putting into action the sustainable construction so that methods can be studied in order to minimise those obstacles and finally come out with the strategies so that Malaysian participants can further put into action the sustainable construction. Apart from that, the conclusions that meet up with the objectives of the research will open new areas for future analysts and academicians to carry out extensive studies on the matters concerned. In addition, data and result examined from the conclusions can be further known or elaborated in virtually any educational deliverance or scholarly materials. It is therefore anticipated that this research will generate interests from the public, academicians and also practitioners. In short, the results of this research will have an impact on various parties involved in development industry including federal government and private agencies, construction suppliers and lastly end users. Therefore, this research will certainly be good for all parties.

EXPECTED FINDINGS

This research is attempted to develop a framework policy of sustainable engineering in Malaysia since there is no specific insurance plan on sustainable development. In comparison to other developed countries such as UK, Sweden and even our community countries like Singapore and Thailand have their own policies on Sustainable development. Therefore, a fresh strategies and guidelines seem to participate the platform design. By the end of the study it targets to improve the practice of sustainable insurance plan is Malaysian development industry and indirectly helps the developers, architects and contractors in bettering the performance of the industry towards sustainable issues.

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